Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy: Distinctive Features

I THE DISTINCTIVE THEORETICAL FEATURES OF REBTTerminology and theoryFrom 'belief to 'attitude'From 'irrational' to 'rigid and extreme' and 'rational' to ‘flexible and non-extreme’From disputing to examiningFrom activating event to adversityNotesPost-modernism, relativism and other emphases: REBT's distinctive theoretical heritagePost-modernism and relativismPhenomenological and Stoic emphasesAffective-experiential emphasisBehavioural emphasisPsychological interactionismResponsible hedonismPsychodynamic featuresConstructivistic emphasisExistential-humanistic emphasisGeneral semantics emphasisSystemic emphasisREBT's distinctive ABC modelREBT's 'situational ABC' model of psychological disturbanceREBT’s 'situational ABC' model of psychological healthNoteRigid and extreme attitudes are at the core of psychological disturbanceRigid attitudesExtreme attitudesAwfulizing attitudesDiscomfort intolerance attitudesDevaluation attitudesFlexible and non-extreme attitudes are at the core of psychological healthFlexible attitudesNon-extreme attitudesNon-awfulizing attitudesDiscomfort tolerance attitudesUnconditional acceptance attitudesDistinction between unhealthy negative emotions (UNEs) and healthy negative emotions (HNEs)REBT's key principle of emotional responsibilityEmotional responsibility can be accepted without blameTaking emotional responsibility does not preclude others from being responsible for their behaviourExplaining why clients' inferences are highly distortedPosition on human worthConditional human worthUnconditional acceptance of humansUnconditional human worthDistinction between ego and discomfort disturbance and healthApproach 1: Ego and discomfort disturbance and healthEgo disturbance and discomfort disturbanceEgo health and discomfort toleranceApproach 2: Self-related, other-related and life-related disturbance and healthApproach 3: Disturbance and health matricesFocus on meta-psychological disturbanceDisturbed reactions at A; disturbed reactions at C: no inferential meaningInferences about disturbed reactions at A; disturbed reactions at CInferences about UNEs at A; disturbed reactions at CInferences about behaviours or action tendencies at A; disturbed reactions at CInferences about thoughts at A; disturbed reactions at CNoteThe biological basis of human disturbanceHuman disturbance is ubiquitousEase in thinking in rigid and extreme waysPsychological disturbance is taught less frequently than psychological healthHumans easily lapse, relapse and replace one disturbance-creating method with anotherREBT's position on the origin and maintenance of psychological problemsREBT's position on psychological changePosition on good mental healthII THE DISTINCTIVE PRACTICAL FEATURES OF REBTThe therapeutic relationship in REBTPosition on case formulationPsycho-educational emphasisWhat do therapists teach clients in REBT?How is this teaching delivered?Emphasis on client learningDealing with problems in order: (i) disturbance; (ii) dissatisfaction; (iii) developmentDisturbance before dissatisfactionDisturbance before developmentDissatisfaction before developmentEarly focus on rigid and extreme basic attitudes (R/EBs)Helping clients to change their rigid and extreme attitudes to flexible and non-extreme attitudesHelping clients to detect their rigid and extreme attitudesHelping clients to discriminate their rigid/extreme basic attitudes from their flexible/non-extreme attitudesHelping clients to examine their attitudes dialecticallyThe use of logic in the dialectical examination of attitudesVariety of therapeutic stylesThe choice-based assessment and examining styleUsing the choice-based method in assessing rigid and extreme attitudes and their healthy alternativesUsing the choice-based method in examining rigid and extreme attitudes and their healthy alternativesREBT encourages clients to seek adversity when carrying out homework assignments, but does so sensiblyChange is hard work and the use of therapist force and energyEmphasis on teaching clients general flexible and non-extreme attitudes and encouraging them to make a profound philosophic changeCompromises in therapeutic changeInference-based changeBehaviour-based changeChanging the environmentWhen to use a change-based focus (CBF) and when to use an acceptance-based focus (ABF)Focus on clients' misconceptions, doubts, reservations and objections to REBTResponding to misconceptions: an exampleDoubts, reservations and objections to particular aspects of REBT theory and practiceTherapeutic efficiencyTheoretically consistent eclecticismAppendixReferences