III Best Practices and Recommendations in Each Sector to Make It Happen
Low-Carbon Transport in India
Assessment of Best Practice Case Studies
P.R. Shukla and Minal Pathak
Abstract India is the world's fourth largest emitter of greenhouse gases. Transport contributes 13 % of India's GHG emissions (MoEF. India: green house gas emissions 2007, Indian Network for Climate Change Assessment (INCCA), Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF). Government of India, New Delhi. Accessed 13 Sept 2013, 2010). Driven by rising population, income, and urbanization, under a business-as-usual scenario, India's energy demand from transport is projected to increase sixfold in 2050 from current levels. This has vital impact on key national sustainable development indicators like energy security and air pollution. In response, several national and subnational policies and measures were initiated to ameliorate the adverse impacts of transport decisions on sustainability. These include national policies and programs for fuel efficiency, low-carbon technologies, investments in public transport infrastructure, and climate change mitigation. These aside, several bottom-up interventions that are initiated locally are showing promise.
This chapter offers an overview of transport sector in India and presents selected best practice case studies that identify good practices. Evidently, the challenge is to replicate and scale up these practices to gain sizable CO2 mitigation together with co-benefits vis-'a-vis various national sustainable development goals. The assessments show that successful implementation of national policies at the subnational level requires widely agreed goals and targets and support from the national government. The support can be in the form of capacity building, technology, or finance. In the overall, the chapter argues for (1) integrating transport policies with local, national, and global objectives, (2) a comprehensive assessment of the impacts (co-benefits and risks) of policies and project from the planning to the post-implementation stage, and (3) cooperation and knowledge sharing among cities and regions facilitated by the national government for cross-learning and transfer of best practices. The lessons from these studies provide important learnings for designing policies and projects elsewhere including other developing countries.
Keywords Low carbon • Best practice • Transport • Co-benefits • Replicability • Policy