The Rise of the New Network Industries: Regulating Digital Platforms

I The Digitalization Dilemma in the Network IndustriesDigitalizing the Network IndustriesNetwork IndustriesDigitalizationSmart NetworksChallenges in Digitalizing NetworksDisruptionNotesPlatforms in Multi-Sided MarketsNewspapersPayment CardsVideogame ConsolesMulti-sided Markets and Network EffectsPlatformsNotesDigital PlatformseBay, Amazon, and Marketplace PlatformsGoogle and SearchesFacebook and Social NetworksAirbnb and the Sharing EconomyAlgorithmic Network EffectsNotesDisruption by Digital Platforms: Substitution and PlatformizationWhat Is Disruption?Napster and the Music IndustryGoogle and the “Link Wars”Disruption by SubstitutionDisruption by “Platformization”NotesNetwork Industries Disrupted by PlatformsSubstitutionPlatformizationThe Digitalization DilemmaThe Role of RegulationNotesII Platforms in the Communications IndustriesNetwork Effects in CommunicationsNetwork Effects at the Origins of Telephony in the USNetwork Effects and RegulationDigitalization and the End of the Telephone MonopolyThe Internet: New and Larger Network EffectsDeregulation and Fragmentation of the MarketNotesEmail: Postal Networks are SubstitutedThe (Originally) Glorious Days of Postal ServicesThe Creation of Network MailHotmail Makes Email the Killer App on the InternetA Network on Top of NetworksSubstitution of Letter MailNotesSkype and WhatsApp: Telecom Carriers are PlatformedSkype and Voice Over IPWhatsApp and OTTsPlatforms and Communications ServicesTelecom Carriers Are PlatformedIOS and Android: Apps Are PlatformedNotesYouTube: Traditional Media Substituted and PlatformedYouTube and User-Generated Content PlatformsMedia Substituted by PlatformsMedia Platformed in the Display of ContentMedia Platformed in the Relationship with AdvertisersDigital Platforms as Coordinators of the SystemNotesThe Regulatory Challenges Posed by Communications PlatformsLevel Playing FieldRegulating ConcentrationPlatform to Telecoms RelationsPlatform NeutralityGeneral InterestNotesIII Platforms in the Transport IndustriesScale and Networks in TransportationThe Adventure of TravelingScale Up!Transport networksLegal MonopoliesThe Limits of Supply Side Economies of ScaleFrom Supply to Demand Side Economies of ScaleNotesAmadeus, Sabre, and Air TransportGlobal Distribution SystemsConflicts in the Aviation EcosystemThe First Platform Regulation?NotesUber and Urban MobilityA Wild Ride“A Network Layer on Top of It”Regulatory BumpsSubstitution of taxiNotesBlaBlaCar and Long-Distance MobilityCarpooling Digital PlatformsThe Sharing EconomySubstitution of Mass-Transit ServicesNotesMobility-as-a-Service: The Network of NetworksWhat Is MaaS?Network EffectsThe Network of NetworksThe Race to Be the Network on TopNotesTransport Providers are PlatformedPlatformedMarket PowerVertical IntegrationThe Digitalization DilemmaGeneral InterestNotesIV Platforms in the Energy IndustriesNetwork Effects in the Energy IndustriesNetwork Effects in the Early Electricity IndustryGrowing Network EffectsPeaking Network EffectsDeregulationNotesDistributed Systems and the Need for CoordinationTesla’s AmbitionsDecentralized Generation: New Technologies and New PoliciesFurther Technological Innovations at the Interface of Generation and TransmissionWhat Is the Smart Grid?What Is New? Platformization in Electricity DistributionNotesThe Future of EnergyFrom Electricity to EnergyWhat Role for Digital Platforms in Energy?How Far Will Platforms Be Able to Go?What Does This Mean for Regulation?V Regulating Platforms as the New Network IndustriesPlatforms as the New Network IndustriesDigital Platforms and Network EffectsThe Business of Creating Value through Network EffectsDigital Platforms Are the New Network IndustriesDifferences between the Old and the New Network IndustriesImplications for RegulationNotesRegulating Platforms as IntermediariesPlatforms Provide Intermediation ServicesObligation to Protect and Promote the Interests of Their ClientsTransparencyLiability as IntermediariesRedress MechanismsNotesDigital Platforms as SuperintermediariesRegulating Platforms as SuperintermediariesLiability of SuperintermediariesFairness and Transparency for Business UsersNetwork Industries and SuperintermediariesNotesRegulating Platforms with Market PowerWinner-Takes-All?Competition Law and RegulationPro-competition Behavioral ObligationsPro-competition Structural ObligationsFair, Reasonable and Non-discrimination ObligationsNotesRegulating Platform EcosystemsPromoting Network EffectsPlatforms and the General InterestInstitutional FrameworkTransparency in AlgorithmsThe European ModelNotesAfterword
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