Transportation has multifarious interfaces with economic development and environment. Transport networks create access to markets and render economic efficiency. In an emerging nation like India, the demand for transport will grow through this century driven by urbanization, industrialization, and rising income. The experience of developed countries shows that the business-as-usual transport policies lead to energy-intensive and oil-dependent transport leading to high GHG emissions.

India is a geographically diverse and vast country. National transport policies are crafted keeping in view the diversity of transport demand, appropriate mix of modes, technologies, fuels, and corresponding infrastructures. The transport system architecture varies at national and subnational levels and so do policy interventions. Transport decisions interface with numerous other development policy domains, e.g., land use, energy, environment, technologies, and finance. The transport decisions have inherent long-term lock-ins lasting several decades. The transport policy making needs long-term perspective and concurrent attention to interface with multifarious development goals. Climate change is now an added interface to which transport policy makers have to pay their attention. The assessment of development policies and plans of several countries in Asia shows that their development policies were not aligned with climate change goals, though their focus on other development and environment objectives like energy security and local air pollution has led to reduced GHG emissions (ADB 2012). For India, the studies have shown opportunities to align policies to simultaneously ensue multiple development and climate objectives (Menon-Choudhury et al. 2007). This chapter presents selected best practices that have shown the promise of gaining multiple co-benefits which are scalable and replicable (Table 8.3). The case studies also show that governance system, including monitoring, reporting, evaluation, and correction, is vital for ensuring replication and scalability.

The case studies represent best practices related to policies and projects. Evidently, the challenge is to replicate and scale up these practices to gain sizable CO2 mitigation together with co-benefits vis-'a-vis various national sustainable development goals. The global mitigation agreements now provide the opportunity to

Table 8.3 Summary assessment of best practice case studies

Table 8.3 (continued)

leverage additional funding from climate finance instruments like Green Climate Fund as well as Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). The additional funds can be the lever for fast-track replication and upscaling of current best practices. Globally, cities have proposed projects under NAMAs that include implementation of low-carbon mobility plans and demand management including road pricing, parking policies, investing in mass transit, and increasing the share of non-motorized and public transport.

The overarching vision of the case studies in the chapter is largely focused on aligning national transport policies in line with the global target of 2 oC temperature stabilization by the end of the century. However, given the climate risks to infrastructure projects, the protection of transport assets from the future climate change is one of the areas where more attention is needed. While climate risks are not formally factored into the existing transport policies and projects, the methodologies to identify and mitigate major climate risks to the transport projects by improved design and construction methods is gaining attention.

The case studies presented in the paper represent just a few of the promising interventions. There are equally promising initiatives such as investing in non-motorized transport. Recently, India's Ministry of Urban Development has released the bicycle sharing toolkit to promote non-motorized transport in cities. Several cities including Ahmedabad, Delhi, Vishakhapatnam, and Chennai have initiated construction of infrastructure for non-motorized transport and cyclesharing schemes. This is an important focus area as it can deliver multiple gains of mobility, safety, emission reductions, and social inclusion.

The “best practice” assessment presented in this chapter shows promise of delivering multiple objectives and the possibility of replication and upscaling. The policies and projects represented in the case studies show that urbanization is the key driver of future transport system choices in India. Rational transport system therefore needs integration of interand intracity transport choices. The lessons from these studies provide important learnings for designing policies and projects elsewhere. The assessments of case studies show that successful implementation of national policies at the subnational level requires widely agreed goals and targets and support from the national government. The support can be in the form of capacity building, technology, or finance. Overall, the chapter argues for (1) integrating transport policies with local, national, and global objectives, (2) a comprehensive assessment of the impacts (co-benefits and risks) of policies and project from the planning to the post-implementation stage, and (3) cooperation and knowledge sharing among cities and regions facilitated by the national government for cross-learning and transfer of best practices.

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