Change Through Time in Psychoanalysis: Transformations and Interventions, The Three Level Model


I Clinical thinking in psychoanalysisA common ground in clinical discussion groups Intersubjective resonance and implicit operational theoriesPluralism: Theoretical integration or incommensurability?The clinical common groundThe Three-Level Model for Observing Patient Transformations as a tool to explore the common groundLevel I: Shared resonanceLevel 2: From empathetic resonance to the conceptualization of diagnostic dimensionsThe common ground at the level of theoretical explanationsConclusionsNoteReferencesUnderlying clinical thinking on change and therapeutic actionLevel I: Global change in the patientAnchor points to track changes in the patientLevel I: Conclusions about change and no change in these vignettesReferencesBodily metaphors as anchor points in facilitating changeKey embodied metaphors in the group work on Ms C’s case—Beatriz de León de BernardiDiscussion—Marianne Leuzinger-BohleberReferencesII Change in metaphors and dreamsChanges and no changes in the representation of self and others through images and metaphorsClinical case: HelenaMetaphors that emerged in the dreams: First level of analysis Representations of the self and the others: Second levelConclusionsReferencesDiscussion—Ricardo BernardiNotesReferencesChanges in dreams in the psychoanalysis of traumatized, chronically depressed patients in the frame of the LAC Depression Study1 applying the 3-LMApplication of the 3-LM in the LAC study:Summary of the psychoanalytic process with the focus on the changes in the manifest dream contentsNightmares and early enactments of the trauma in the transferenceApproaching aggressionDifferentiation between self- and object representationsMourning, revenge, self-destructiveness, and creativitySummary and discussionReferencesDiscussion—Carolyn S. EllmanNotesIII Foci of the analyst's interventions, mechanisms of change"I don't want to be like my mother": Exploring changes in identity using the analyst as modelSequence of changes and interventions in the analysis of a violent patientIV ImpasseThree hypotheses on impasse in the case of JanineChange and impasse in a systematic case study: Foci of the analyst's interpretationsV New uses of the 3-LM in the transmission of psychoanalysis and in professional developmentThe 3-LM's contribution to developments in analytical treatmentA dialogue between 3-LM presenters and moderatorsVI Clinical observation groups and the psychoanalysis of childrenObserving transformations and interventions in a child analysis through the 3-LM: The case of a 5-year-old girlHow does a 5-year-old cope with mourning? Contributions of the 3-LM for observing child transformationsVII Improving clinical evidenceAssessing strengths and limitations of clinical evidence in a psychoanalytic clinical materialVIII Three-Level ModelGuidelines for organizing 3-LM groups