Structure and Mechanisms of Capacity Development
In order to understand the low-carbon pathway that can help Asia unlock carbon intensity, a good structure and mechanisms of capacity building need to be designed across the region. The structure to develop capacity should have a broad space for knowledge-sharing and a full loop of knowledge transfer which starts from research and leads to policy and to various level of implementation.
Sharing of knowledge should be done on both the horizontal and vertical levels. This means that knowledge is shared among the same level of society and through different levels of the related society. There are at least four levels of society, including the community, researchers, practitioners and policy makers. To accomplish capacity development, different mechanisms are applied in each society. The 'community' itself is the ground basis for implementation of low-carbon development. Mass media and direct communication to disseminate knowledge and information through the society are good mechanisms as this is a broad and heterogeneous society. Integration of a good knowledge management system into everyday life would be an effective tool of communication. The key function of the society is understanding of the facts and impacts of climate change as well as perception of their own adaptive capacity to be resilient to global change. In Asia, this society is mostly low-income to middle-income communities and they are the majority of the Asian population. Empowering this society is an effective strategy to leapfrog toward a low-carbon society.
A society of scientists and researchers is unique in the way that knowledge and information are developed from this society. The mechanisms of research and education should be promoted in order to find real solutions to the change and to cope with the change. This society is the key to fostering capacity development in this region through knowledge management. Collaboration among Asian countries needs to be strengthened in order to gain and exchange experience as well as joint research in the framework of the Asian region as climate change is a global issue but different coping situations can be learnt from each other. Nevertheless, the key issue of this society is to connect to other levels of society in order to disseminate the knowledge to the real implementers.
Practitioners are mostly people from government and industry who are involved in implementation either by planning or actions. This community drives low-carbon activities in the real sector to be implemented. They need to be equipped with skill and to be competent to initiate activity, suggest appropriate technology and solve any problems that may occur during implementation. The mechanism to promote LCD of this society is to improve their skill and enhance technology and knowledge transfer to facilitate their activities.
The top level is policy makers where their role is planning and laying down the
strategies and policy. To enhance the capacity for low-carbon development, policy makers should have special mechanisms such as high-level dialogue or high-level executive training. Nevertheless the achievement of this will lead to a high impact of change. A key issue is dissemination of the right and most feasible information in a timely manner so that good policies will be executed in a timely manner.
Fig. 10.7 A knowledge-sharing platform among different societies on their function and mechanisms
There is a need for Asian countries to have a knowledge-sharing platform to circulate the information at different levels of society so that they will all understand the same target and the reason for each policy and action to be pursued and implemented. Designs for connected pathways between these societies have to take into account how to stimulate the action of these sharing platforms for the greatest benefit of low-carbon development.
Figure 10.7 shows the linkage of four societies linked to the knowledge platform for both their function and mechanisms. Transforming of knowledge can be intrasociety and inter-society.