Related Activities and International Cooperation

1. SEA Project

The Regional Capacity Building for Sustainable National Greenhouse Gas Inventory

Management System in Southeast Asia (SEA GHG Project) was held back to back with WGIA every year. The project is ran with the UNFCCC as the lead agency and in collaboration with US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), US Agency for International Development (USAID), Colorado State University (CSU), Workshop on GHG Inventories in Asia (WGIA (GIO/NIES)) and USAID Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) programme. The participants of the SEA GHG Project and WGIA have the same aim, and holding similar activities at the same time has a synergistic effect for the relevant parties.

The aim of the SEA GHG Project meeting is to provide updates and feedback with SEA participating countries of their current status, gaps, challenges, barriers and capacity building needs (or technical assistance) in developing national GHG inventories for the third national communication (NC3) and first biennial update report (BUR1). There was also much feedback to WGIA.

2. Participation from USAID, USEPA and AusAID

The participants of WGIA are not only WGIA members—the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) have also attended. WGIA enables sharing of information on many donors' progress and the needs of the WGIA countries, which assists in coordination. The USA has conducted some projects, such as the SEA project, USAID Low Emissions Asian Development programme (LEAD programme) in Southeast Asia. Australia conducted a study tour for GHG improvement with Indonesia's government, which involved visiting facilities related to application of countermeasures for climate change through the WGIA network.

3. Mutual Learning Between Japan and Korea

The mutual learning between Japan and Korea is the first activity not involving WGIA and was held on the waste sector between GIO and Korea Environment Corporation (KECO) in the annual workshop in Korea in 2008. Korea's GHG inventory compiler invited Japan's counterpart to review its waste sector in terms of GHG inventory. Such mutual learning is a two-way process and does not involve one-way communication such as is found in the examiner–examinee relationship. As such, Japan checked Korean GHG inventories, but also Korea checked Japanese GHG inventories and gave Japan some comments. The comments from Korea contributed to improve the transparency of Japanese GHG inventories. The second mutual learning was held on the waste sector between Japan and Korea in Japan in 2009, and the third mutual learning was held on all sectors between Japan and Korea in Korea in 2010. Many findings resulted, which were not subjected to the UNFCCC review, and thus also contributed to improved transparency of each other's GHG inventories.

The Secretariat of WGIA introduced this activity in WGIA8 in 2010. With the agreement of the participants, ML has been held in the WGIAs that followed as one of the sessions. For Non-Annex I Parties not mandated to be reviewed by UNFCCC, no particular attention needs to be paid to GHG inventories after submission. Previously, Non-Annex I Parties had never studied another's GHG inventories, which is where mutual learning provides an opportunity to study and learn from others' GHG inventories, which contributes to overall improvement of a country's own GHG inventories. Emission factors which other countries have developed and implemented to improve their GHG inventories, as well as issues concerning institutional arrangements which other countries face, and so on can be shared via ML. After ML, Non-Annex I Parties recognised the need both for the information in order to compile their own GHG inventories and the information on other countries, for comparison. Transparency and comparability are thus improved, and such findings lead to overall improvements in the GHG inventory.

4. Mutual Learning Plays a Role as External Quality Assurance (Korea and Lao PDR)

Korea, which is not included in Annex I Parties, does not have a responsibility to be reviewed by UNFCCC. And, as mutual learning does not employ any procedures such as UNFCCC reviews and only uses intercountry evaluations, it improves GHG inventories across the board. Korea implemented mutual learning as a form of external quality assurance in the WGIA sessions. Lao PDR, which attended the mutual learning sessions WGIA9 and WGIA11, also introduced mutual learning as a programme that emphasises peer reviews of the LULUCF with GIO. Lao PDR commented that this enhanced the accuracy and completion of the inventory of the LULUCF sector of Lao PDR.

5. Similarity Between Mutual Learning and International Consultation and Analysis (ICA) Procedure

Mutual learning involves “reading” a partner's GHG inventories in detail and studying other GHG inventories of other countries. As described above, mutual learning plays a role in the form of external quality assurance. In other respects, the ICA process of BUR is similar to quality assurance in that it is conducted by a third party, although it may not be regarded as quality assurance. ICA provides Non-Annex I Parties which lack sufficient human resources of quality assurance new opportunities to improve the quality of their GHG inventories

Mutual learning, just like ICA, contributes to improved transparency and comparability to evaluate the country-specific emission factors developed.

6. Cooperation with JICA Projects

GIO has collaborated with the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) to build the capacity required to conduct periodical GHG inventories of developing countries. Projects have been implemented in Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand to date. GIO provides leaning of technical issues of GHG inventories and has formed a relationship between JICA officers, GHG inventory compilers and expert WGIA participants. An author of this paper worked in a project in JICA Indonesia named Project of Capacity Development for Climate Change Strategies in Indonesia and lived in Indonesia for 2 years. The Ministry of Environment of Indonesia was well acquainted with GIO and respected GIO's experience and capacity. Making GHG inventories requires a great deal of networking and good connections, such as with ministries and researchers, as such can enable work to proceed smoothly.

In 2014, the Workshop on Capacity Development on Greenhouse Gas Inventory in the Southeast Asia Region entitled “How can CITC break through GHG inventory barriers?” was held as a back-to-back session of WGIA12, and GIO supported Climate Change International Technical and Training Center (CITC) and Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization (a public organisation). This event represented the launch pad for CITC, and many participants of WGIA12 remained afterwards to attend this event. CITC is a training centre for other developing countries and was established by TGO as part of south–south cooperation.

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