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Society – Water – Technology

I Context and ObjectivesEcological Challenges, Social and Economic Opportunities: The Multiple Facets of Major Water Engineering ProjectsInterdisciplinary Research on Water ResourcesThe Interdisciplinary Research Tradition of the BerlinBrandenburg Academy of Sciences and HumanitiesAims and Working Structure of the Interdisciplinary Research Group Society – Water – TechnologyAcknowledgementsMembers of the Interdisciplinary Research Group Society – Water – TechnologyWater Ethics – Orientation for Water Conflicts as Part of Interand Transdisciplinary DeliberationObjectives and ApproachThe Value of Water in Different CulturesJudaism, Christianity, and IslamWestern ModernityThe Need for Water Ethics Beyond Value AssignmentWater EthicsReview of the Literature on Water EthicsSubjects of Water EthicsSubstantial and Procedural Aspects of Water EthicsCultural and Social Preconditions of the Ethical DiscourseWater ConflictsWater Ethics and Specific Water ConflictsReferencesII Major Water Engineering Projects – Challenges, Problems, OpportunitiesMajor Water Engineering Projects: Definitions, Framework Conditions, Systemic EffectsDefinition of Major Water Engineering Projects – A ProposalWater Technologies – Uses and FunctionsWater StorageWater DistributionWater UsePrinciples, Trends and Framework Conditions of Major Water Engineering ProjectsAn Evaluation Framework of MWEPsReferencesA Global View on Future Major Water Engineering ProjectsIntroductionMajor Engineering Projects in the Water SectorInterbasin Water-Transfer ProjectsNavigable WaterwaysHydropower Mega DamsLarge-Scale Restoration ProjectsDiscussionReferencesNeglected Values of Major Water Engineering Projects: Ecosystem Services, Social Impacts, and Economic ValuationControversial Discussions About Benefits and Costs of Major Water Engineering ProjectsThe Emergence of Major Water Engineering Projects Worldwide: Large Dams on the AdvanceMaking Ecosystem Services and Distributional Concerns Visible and Incorporating Them into Decision MakingThe Concept of Total Economic ValueEcological Trade-OffsSocial ConflictsPotential and Limits of Economic AnalysisConcluding RemarksReferencesWater Governance: A Systemic ApproachIntroductionSystem Theory RevisitedThe Governance ApproachDealing with ComplexityReferencesResearch in Two Case Studies: Irrigation and Land Use in the Fergana Valley and Water Management in the Lower Jordan ValleySelection of the Case Studies: A Wide Spectrum of Socio-Economic and Ecological Framework ConditionsThe Fergana ValleyThe Lower Jordan River Basin and the Red Sea–Dead Sea Conveyance ProjectSignificance and Exemplary Importance of the Case StudiesReferencesIII The Fergana Valley – Uzbekistan's Hydro-Agricultural System Between Inertia and ChangeBetween Multiple Transformations and Systemic Path DependenciesPost-Soviet Transformation as a Multi-dimensional, Long-Term ProcessTransformation and Path Dependencies in Fergana Valley's Post-Soviet AgricultureTransformation and Path Dependencies in Fergana Valley's Post-Soviet Irrigation SystemResearching the Fergana Valley: Tasks and TopicsReferencesFrom Upscaling to Rescaling: Transforming the Fergana Basin from Tsarist Irrigation to Water Management for an Independent UzbekistanIntroductionSalient Features of Fergana's Irrigation SystemHistorical Setting of Tsarist Plans to Utilise Central Asian Water Resources to Large-Scale Soviet Irrigation in the Fergana ValleyGeographical Rescaling After IndependencePersistence and Change Within Uzbekistan's Water ManagementReferencesIrrigation Infrastructure in Fergana Today: Ecological Implications – Economic NecessitiesIntroductionGeneral Overview of Fergana ValleyGeography (Geomorphological Structure)ClimateDemographyLand Use and Agricultural ProductionWater Resources Management in the Fergana ValleyHydrological CharacteristicsIrrigation NetworkCollector-Drainage NetworkManagement StructuresAgricultural Water UseEcological Impact of Water Management and Irrigation PracticesEconomical Necessities to Maintain Irrigation InfrastructuresWater ProductivityConclusionsReferencesWhere Water Meets Agriculture: The Ambivalent Role of Water Users AssociationsWUAs in the Global Discourse on Integrated Water Resources ManagementWUAs as Building Blocks of Irrigation Management in the Fergana ValleyEarly Origins of WUAsOrganisational Structure of WUAsSpatial Reform of WUAsCurrent Status of WUAsFergana Valley's WUAs in PracticePractices of RepresentationPractices of LeadershipPractices of RegulationPractices of EducationWUAs as Models for Emulation?ReferencesTheory, the Market and the State: Agricultural Reforms in Post Socialist Uzbekistan Between Economic Incentives and Institutional ObstaclesIntroduction: The Need to Price Water Resources in the Fergana ValleySome Economics of Water PricingWhat Are the Full Costs of Water and Its Services?Who Should Bear the Full Costs of Water Services?Political and Institutional ObstaclesProtection of the Agricultural SectorNo Freedom for Individual ChoiceLack of Clearly Defined Water Rights and Unclear Role of Water Users AssociationsConcluding RemarksReferencesIV The Lower Jordan Valley – The Red Sea-Dead Sea onveyance Project and Its Complex HistoryWater Resources, Cooperation and Power Asymmetries in the Water Management of the Lower Jordan Valley: The Situation Today and the Path that Has Led ThereWater Resources of the Lower Jordan BasinWater Uses and Water AbstractionsWater BalanceEnvironmental Consequences of Current Water UsesClimate and DemographyProposed StrategiesHistory of Water Conflicts, Cooperation and TreatiesThe Johnston PlanThe Agreement Concerning the Utilisation of the Yarmuk WatersThe Peace Treaty Between Israel and JordanThe Oslo II AgreementThe Red Sea–Dead Sea Water Conveyance Study ProgrammeThe Water Swap Memorandum of UnderstandingConclusionsReferencesReclaiming the Dead Sea: Alternatives for ActionIntroductionWater Scarcity in the Jordan River BasinWater Conveyance from the Red Sea and the Mediterranean SeaRed Sea–Dead Sea Water ConveyanceMediterranean Sea–Dead Sea Water ConveyanceSouthern Route (Ashkelon → Qumran)Northern Route (Atlit → Naharayim-Bakura → Dead Sea)Dead Sea Reclamation Based on Recycled WaterHow to Cover the Cost of Dead Sea Reclamation?Concluding CommentsReferencesJordan's Shadow State and Water Management: Prospects for Water Security Will Depend on Politics and Regional CooperationDefining the ProblemDemand Exceeds SupplyUnpredictable Transboundary FlowsGovernance ShortcomingsThe Shadow StateThe Politics of Co-optionPolitics of WaterProposed ActionsBuilding Water Security Through Political ReformsNational and Regional SolutionsConclusionReferencesTechnologies, Incentives and Cost Recovery: Is There an Israeli Role Model?IntroductionThe Evolution of Israel's Water and Agrarian PolicyReform of the Water Management InstitutionsDesalinationExtension of Wastewater Treatment PlantsEconomic Instruments and IncentivesAwareness-Raising MeasuresDiscussion of Water Management ImpactsCan Israel Serve as a Role Model? 10 Lessons to Be LearntReferencesV Outlook and Options for ActionLessons Learnt, Open Research Questions and RecommendationsIntroductionThe Fergana ValleyThe Lower Jordan BasinCross-Analysis of the Case StudiesStrengthening International Coordination and Cooperation Around WEPsEnhancing Planning Processes and Evaluation Tools for MWEPsImproving Responsiveness and ResponsibilityMWEPs as Coupled Technical-Social-Environmental SystemsConcluding RemarksReferences
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