The First World Empire: Portugal, War and Military Revolution

PREFACEACKNOWLEDGEMENTSCONTRIBUTORSI Fortifications and military revolutionNEGOTIATING EARLY MODERNITY IN AZEMMOUR, MOROCCO Military architecture in transitionMottoContextAzemmour: historical backgroundUrban impactMilitary architectureResilience versus revolutionFinal considerationsNotesEARLY MODERN FORTIFICATION The Portuguese experience and engineer educationThe debate about the Military Revolution and fortificationExperimenting and circulating on the scale of an empire (1540-1640)Rebuilding the frontier and training engineers: the Lusitanian Method (1640-1700)Educating by geometry: The Portuguese Engineer (1700-1800)NotesMILITARY ENGINEERS, THE MILITARY REVOLUTION, AND THE DEFENCE OF PORTUGAL, 1640-68Provenance, recruitment, and role of military engineersProblems and issuesConclusionNotesSizes of the armies and the rise of the fiscal stateARMY SIZE, STATE EXPENDITURE, AND WARFARE CULTURE IN SIXTEENTH-CENTURY PORTUGALDebates around the Military Revolution and the case of early modern PortugalArmy size: number of effectives, demography, and military recruitmentState expenditureWarfare cultureConclusionsNotesWAS THERE AN EARLY MODERN MILITARY REVOLUTION IN MAINLAND PORTUGAL?Evolution of the size of armies on Europe's peripheryForces deployed from the end of the fifteenth century to the beginning of the nineteenth centuryA heightened aversion to military service?A shortage of men for war?Fiscal innovation justified by warConclusionNotes"SMALL GOVERNMENT OR BIG GOVERNMENT?" Assessing state expansion in the war for colonial BrazilBrazil: a distant afterthoughtThe Dutch threat and the Iberian responseMore manpower, less state: seventeenth-century experienceMore manpower, more state: eighteenth-century experienceClosing remarksNotesTRANSFORMATION OF MILITARY TECHNOLOGY IN PORTUGAL The impact of the Iberian Union on artilleryI The Castilian lead over Portuguese artilleryII New dynamics for the circulation of expertsIII New institutions for the teaching of gunneryIV Cross-imperial circulation of military techniciansConclusionNotesPORTUGUESE MILITARY EXPEDITIONS TO SOUTHEAST ASIA, 1597-1606The Louren$o de Brito expedition (1597-8)The Andre Furtado de Mendon^a expedition (1601-3)The D. Martim Afonso de Castro expedition (1606)Historical precedentsConclusionNotesREASSESSING PORTUGUESE MILITARY SUPERIORITY IN ASIA IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY - THE CASE OF LAND WARFAREThe Military Revolution and the Portuguese EmpireMilitary superiority?Waging war in Asia: some case studiesConclusionsNotesCultural exchange and circulation of military knowledgeTHE PORTUGUESE CONQUEST OF ANGOLA IN THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES (1575-1641) A military revolution in West Central Africa?The Military Revolution and European expansionThe Portuguese in Atlantic AfricaLuso-African warfare and the conquest of AngolaThe irrelevance of the Military Revolution in the Portuguese conquest in AngolaNotesSUPPLIERS, KNOWLEDGE BROKERS, AND BROTHERS IN ARMS Portuguese aspects of military innovation in MakassarBackground: European rivalries in Makassar at the start of the seventeenth century"Strong castles and many fortresses"Brothers in arms: the VOC attack of 1660ConclusionNotesMILITARY INNOVATION AND INTRASTATE WARFARE Portuguese artillery and sieges during the Wokou raids of the mid-sixteenth centuryPortuguese cannon and mid-sixteenth-century military treatisesSiege warfare and the efflorescence of indigenous Chinese cannon designsIntrastate warfare as a driver of military innovationConclusionNotesTHE MILITARY REVOLUTION IN GLOBAL HISTORY East Asian perspectivesWhat is the Military Revolution? A historiographical reconnaissanceWhat does evidence from East Asia tell us about the Military Revolution?ConclusionsNotesBIBLIOGRAPHY