Financial Inclusion in Asia and Beyond: Measurement, Development Gaps, and Economic Consequences


The nature and landscape of financial inclusion in AsiaBrief comments on the existing literatureThe nature and landscape of financial inclusion in AsiaAccessUsageQualityFinancial inclusion strategies and policiesGaps in financial inclusionFintech and financial inclusionConcluding remarksNotesReferencesThe composition of financial inclusion in ASEAN and East Asia: A new hybrid index and some stylised factsRelated literatureConstruction of a hybrid index of financial inclusionEuclidean distance and double PCA methodologiesConstruction of a hybrid indexEmpirical analysis and stylised factsDistance from the frontierTop two indicators by country and yearConclusion and policy implicationsAcknowledgementsReferencesThe effects of financial inclusion on development outcomes: New insights from ASEAN and East Asian countriesOverview of the literature on development outcomesDataDevelopment outcomesFinancial inclusion index and disaggregated measuresPolitical riskOther control variablesEmpirical methodologyEmpirical resultsEconomic growth and financial inclusionEducation and financial inclusionHealth and financial inclusionIncome inequality and financial inclusionConclusion and policy perspectivesNotesReferencesFinancial inclusion: New measurement and cross-country impact assessmentFinancial inclusion concepts and measurementIndex of financial inclusionEmpirical methodology and resultsConclusionsNotesReferencesFinancial inclusion and macroeconomic volatility in AsiaKey literature3Data and empirical modelStylised factsEmpirical modelControl variables and priorsDomestic conditionsExternal conditionsBanking sector variablesEmpirical resultsFinancial inclusion and output volatility in AsiaReckless financial inclusion and output volatilityMacroprudential policies and output volatilityRobustness checksDigital financial inclusion and output volatility in EMDEsConclusionsNotesReferencesEmpowering the powerless: Financial inclusion in developing Africa and AsiaDeterminants of financial inclusion service usageMCA methodData descriptionMCA resultsFinancial inclusion in 2013State of financial inclusion in 2017Dynamic of financial inclusion between 2013 and 2017Financial inclusion services usage over timeFinancially excluded individuals over timeTypology of financial inclusion service usersCluster analysisClassification of financial services usersConclusionNotesReferencesAppendicesThe poverty-reducing effects of financial inclusion: Evidence from CambodiaOverview of financial inclusion in CambodiaLiterature reviewAnalytical frameworkHousehold decision to use financial services and its implicationsEndogenous switching modelEndogenous switching probit modelData and variablesData used in the analysisVariablesDescriptive analysisResults and discussionUse of financial servicesHousehold income per capitaPoverty-reducing effects of financial inclusionConclusionAcknowledgementsDisclosure statementNotesReferencesFinancial inclusion and savings in IndonesiaBackground: financial inclusion in IndonesiaLiterature review – financial inclusion and savingsAnalysis of IFLS dataResultsDescriptive analysisImpact on savings ownershipImpact on quantity of savingsDiscussion and conclusionNotesReferencesFinancial inclusion, active bank accounts, and poverty reduction in IndiaIntroduction to financial inclusion in IndiaData and empirical modelEmpirical resultsConclusionNotesReferences