Bene fit of a planning regime

The literature is replete with quantitative empirical studies on the benefits of planning policies in the developed world, although it is inconclusive. However, like quantitative cost studies, few of such studies exist on SSA planning regimes. Besides, these few studies focus on limited conventional planning factors, such as government zoning, roads, distance to the CBD or amenities, particularly school, or measure it from the location standpoint. This book, however, identified a wide range of SSA planning regime requirements based on which the benefit was assessed. The research reported in this book incorporated unconventional planning regime requirements, such as the sub-division planning scheme, the formalised title to property, architectural design, and building permit, among others. As applied to a case study in Ghana, the book was thus able to establish quantitative evidence of benefits of Ghana’s planning regime.

It was established that Ghana’s planning regime generates benefits in the case study area. It was noted that typically compliance with planning regime requirements in the study area with respect to a standard three-bedroom residential development on a 0.065-hectare land generates a benefit of approximately 39.8% of the mean value of a standard three-bedroom planned development in the study area. Stated in monetary terms, the benefit of compliance with the planning regime’s requirements regarding a standard three-bedroom residential development in the study area is GH031,161.85 or US$20,774.57. Apart from a worship centre, which generated a negative value, all the requirements generated positive values, albeit in different magnitudes. However, tarred road and concrete drains, formalised title, electricity, and pipe-borne water generated most of the benefit. Benefits from these four planning regime requirements constituted 79.26% of the cumulative benefit of the entire individual planning regime requirements’ benefits and 31.5% of the mean value of a typical standard three-bedroom planned residential development in the study area. Tarred road and concrete drains also generated most of the benefits among the four requirements, that is, about 38.67% of the benefits from the four requirements. This suggests that the subject planning regime should put in more effort towards addressing these requirements. This is very important because it can enable urban authorities not only in the case study country but across the developing world to mobilise revenues through land-based financing tools such as property tax to finance urban infrastructure development.

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