Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition (DAS-II)

Revised in 2007, the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition (DAS-II) contains a working memory cluster for the Early Years Battery (Upper Level) and the School- Age Battery. For both batteries, the working memory cluster score is composed of two subtests: Recall of Sequential Order, and Recall of Digits Backward. In the Recall of Sequential Order subtest, the respondent is presented with an oral list of body parts, and is required to verbally sequence the list in order from the highest part on the body to the lowest. Older children are also presented with non-body parts, and must sequence the body parts (again from highest to lowest) followed by the non-body parts. The Recall of Digits Backward subtest is analogous to the Digits Backward task of the Wechsler scales. The two working memory subtests on the DAS-II are normed for children aged 5.0-17.11. Although the DAS-II was not developed to directly reflect current Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory, “the factor structure of the DAS-II fits the seven-factor CHC model well” (Elliott, 2007, p. 13), and the working memory subtests were included in the current edition to reflect the general importance of research in the area of working memory.

Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2)

In addition to the six Core Subtests, the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning Second Edition (WRAML2) includes two optional subtests that specifically address working memory: Verbal Working Memory and Symbolic Working Memory. Both subtests are normed for individuals aged 5-90. The Verbal Working Memory subtest requires respondents to complete two distinct, but related tasks. Respondents are verbally presented with a list of words that include animals and non-animals. The respondent is first asked to repeat the list, recalling all the animals followed by the non-animals. Then, after hearing another list, the respondent is asked to recall the animals in order of their typical sizes (smallest to largest), followed by the non-animals in any order. Respondents over 14 years of age are asked to verbally list the non-animals in relative size as well.

On the Symbolic Working Memory subtest, respondents are verbally presented with a series of random numbers, and are required to point out the numbers in ascending order on a stimulus card. Respondents are also verbally presented with random numbers—letters, and then asked to point out the numbers followed by the letters in correct order on another stimulus card.These two subtests are normed for individuals aged 9-85 years and older.

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