Development of a Russian “Emotional Intelligence Test”

Following the results of adaptation and standardization of the MSCEIT methodology, a number of problems were identified for the Russian-speaking sample. For example, some parts of the test showed reduced validity; the procedure of direct and reverse translations has led to semantic distortions (e.g., the names of emotions); and textual and graphic stimulus material caused difficulties in understanding among Russian-speaking respondents. To obtain valid results of measuring El in Russian-speaking samples, a decision was made to develop a Russian-speaking test for measuring El, taking into account the problems identified during the MSCEIT adaptation process.

The Russian-speaking Emotional Intelligence Test (EIT) methodology is based on the concept of El by Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso (Mayer et al.,

32 Elena A. Sergienko et al

Scales

Russian-speak ing sample (N=3827)

English-speaking sample (N=5000)

Cron bach’s Alpha

The “weakest" parts

Cronbach’s Alpha

A - Faces

0.92

A1 -1. A1 -2

0.80

В - Facilitation

0.89

Bl-c. B2-b. B3-c. B4-b. B5-b

0.64

C - Changes

0.39

C2. C5. C11.C14

0.70

D - Emotion management

0.95

Dl-2. D2-2. D3-4

0.69

E - Pictures

0.96

E4-3. E5-4

0.88

F - Sensations

0.94

F2-a

0.65

G - Blends

0.06

G5. G9. G10

0.66

H - Emotional relationships

0.91

Hl-1. H3-3

0.67

Cron bach’s Alpha

Split-half

Split-half

Branch 1. Perceiving emotions

0.94

0.96

0.91

Branch 2. Using emotions to facilitate thought

0.89

0.96

0.79

Branch 3. Understanding emotions

0.42

0.34

0.80

Branch 4. Managing emotions

0.96

0.99

0.83

Experiential domain

0.95

0.97

0.90

Strategic domain

0.90

0.94

0.88

The reliability of the test overall

0.93

0.96

0.93

Source: Authors’ own compilation.

2000) and the psychoevolutionary theory of emotions by Plutchik (Plutchik, 1980). According to Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso, El is the ability to process information about one’s emotional states and reactions and other people’s emotions, as well as the ability to use emotions to increase the efficiency of thinking and activity. According to the psycho-evolutionary theory of Robert Plutchik, emotions are the mechanisms of communication and survival. Communication takes place through eight basic adaptive reactions, which are prototypes of eight basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, interest, trust, disgust, anger, and fear).

Let us consider in more detail the fundamental tenets of this theory:

• Emotions are mechanisms of communication and survival based on evolutionary adaptation. They exist in functionally equivalent forms across

Structural diagram of the four-factor model of El, obtained in the Russian- speaking version of the MSCEIT methodology

Figure 2.1 Structural diagram of the four-factor model of El, obtained in the Russian- speaking version of the MSCEIT methodology.

Note: * denotes free parameters set in the circuit during calculations.

Source: Authors’ own compilation.

all phylogenetic levels. Communication takes place through eight basic adaptive reactions (effects), which are prototypes of eight basic emotions;

  • • Emotions have a genetic basis;
  • • Emotions are hypothetical constructions based on obvious phenomena of various classes;
  • • Emotions are chains of events with stabilizing feedbacks that maintain behavioral homeostasis. Events occurring in the environment undergo a cognitive assessment; as a result of the evaluation, experiences arise (emotions), accompanied by physiological changes. In response, the body performs behaviors designed to affect the stimulus;
  • • Emotions relate to each other in three main dimensions - intensity, similarity, and polarity. The relationship between emotions can be represented as a three-dimensional (spatial) structural model. The vertical vector reflects the intensity of emotions, the horizontal vector reflects the similarity of emotions, and the axis from front to back characterizes the polarity of opposite emotions. The same postulate includes the statement that some emotions are primary, while others are derived or mixed;
  • • Emotions are related to certain character traits or typologies. The structural model of emotions is the basis for constructing a theoretical model of psychological defenses (Plutchik, 1980).

Thus, the combination of the two theories allowed for the creation of a logical theoretical substantiation of the new Russian-speaking methodology of EIT (Sergienko, Vetrova, Khlevnaya, & Kiseleva, 2017).

 
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