Multiple intelligence and emotional intelligence

The El concept verification starts with Salovey and Mayer’s first El conceptualization (1990) followed by Goleman’s emotional intelligence model and Gardner’s two personal intelligences types - intrapersonal and interpersonal

Table 6.3 Analysis of primary neural regions and top neural structures: ranking by

summary of relative citation frequencies of 318 neurobiological studies

Intelligence

Original Core Cognitive Units

Primary neural regions (top neural structures)

Linguistic

Language comprehension Spoken language Writing Reading

Temporal Cortex (Superior Temporal Gyrus)

Frontal Cortex (Broca’s Area, Motor Cortex)

Parietal Cortex (Inferior Parietal Lobule, Supramarginal Gyrus, Angular Gyrus)

Logical-

mathematical

Calculations Logical reasoning Problem-solving

Frontal Cortex (PFC. Inferior Frontal Gyrus)

Parietal Cortex (Intraparietal Sulcus, Inferior Parietal Lobule, Angular Gyrus)

Temporal Cortex (Medial Temporal Lobe)

Musical

Perceiving pitch, melody, harmony, timbre, and rhythm Vocal singing Emotional aspects of music

Instrumental music Perception of both music and the sounds of human language

Frontal Cortex (Motor Cortex) Temporal Cortex (Superior Temporal Sulcus Primary Auditory Cortex) Subcortical Structures (Basal Ganglia)

Kinesthetic

Fine motor movements Large motor movements Expressive Movements Motor memory

Frontal Cortex (Motor Cortex, Primary Motor, Premotor, Supplementary Motor)

Parietal Cortex (Posterior Parietal Cortex)

Subcortical Structures (Basal Ganglia, Thalamus)

Cerebellum (-)

Spatial

Spatial Awareness Working vv/Objects Art Perception Art Production

Frontal Cortex (Motor Cortex, PFC) Parietal Cortex (Intraparietal Sulcus Superior Parietal Lobe)

Temporal Cortex (Medial Temporal Lobe)

Occipital Cortex (-)

Interpersonal

Empathy

Understanding Others Leadership Facilitator / Caregiver

Frontal Cortex (PFC)

Temporal Cortex (Medial Temporal Lobe, Amygdala, Superior Temporal Sulcus)

Cingulate Cortex (ACC)

Parietal Cortex (-)

Table 6.3 Cont.

Intelligence

Original Core Cognitive Units

Primary neural regions (top neural structures)

Intrapersonal

Self-understanding

Metacognition

Emotional

Management

Frontal Cortex (PFC)

Cingulate Cortex (ACC)

Temporal Cortex (Medial Temporal Lobe. Anterior Temporal Lobe, Amygdala)

Parietal Cortex (Medial Parietal Cortex, Inferior Parietal Cortex)

Subcortical Structures (Basal Ganglia, Brainstem)

Naturalist

Understanding

Animals

Understanding Plants Pattern recognition Science

Temporal Cortex (Superior Temporal Sulcus, Amygdala)

Subcortical Structures (Brainstem, Thalamus, Basal Ganglia)

Frontal Cortex (-)

Occipital Cortex (-)

Parietal Cortex (-)

Source: Shearer & Karanian, 2017.

intelligence, included in the MI model. Goleman (1995) describes El as the ability to recognize and manage feelings and moods in oneself as well in other people. Gardner (1993, 1999) argues that El is better described as “emotional sensitivity” because it forms only a part of the more comprehensive entities of the intra and interpersonal intelligences. He further argues that it is a conceptual error to define pro-social behavior as more “emotionally intelligent” because in MI theory each of the intelligences are amoral and thus can be used for good or bad (Gardner, 1993, 1999).

There has been a growing interest in the investigation of the biological/ neural basis of El. Jausovec (as referenced in Tarasuik, Ciorciari, & Stough, 2009) found significant correlations between the level of El and mean EEG frequency. Neural brain plasticity has been observed in emotional learning (Davidson, 2003). A complex study was done by Krueger et al. (2009), examining a unique sample of combat veterans from the Vietnam Head Injury Study by studying emotional intelligence by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002), and their prefrontal cortex (PFC) as an important part in human social-emotional behavior. These findings contribute to understanding the neurobiological basis of El, concluding that El should be viewed as complementary to cognitive intelligence, which in turn provides a more complex understanding of human intelligence in general. Gardner (taken from Krueger et al., 2009 and in Shearer & Karanian, 2017) presents some of the results in Table 6.4 in comparison to personal intelligence.

The empirical studies related to MI and El investigation are quite rare, though the ones verifying their relations support certain intersections between them.

Intelligence

Original Core Cognitive Units

Primary neural regions (top neural structures)

Emotional intelligence

Interpersonal

Empathy

Understanding Others Leadership Facilitator / Caregiver

Frontal Cortex (PFC) Temporal Cortex (Medial Temporal Lobe, Amygdala, Superior Temporal Sulcus) Cingulate Cortex (ACC) Parietal Cortex (-)

Strategic El skills Emotional processes mediator Emotion- related behavior Experiential El skills

Frontal Cortex (ventromedial PFC) Temporal Cortex (Amygdala. Superior Temporal Sulcus) Cingulate Cortex, insula,

Intrapersonal

Self-Understanding Metacognition Emotional Management

Frontal Cortex (PFC)

Cingulate Cortex (ACC) Temporal Cortex (Medial Temporal Lobe, Anterior Temporal Lobe, Amygdala) Parietal Cortex (Medial Parietal Cortex, Inferior Parietal Cortex)

Subcortical Structures (Basal Ganglia, Brainstem)

parietal cortices Frontal Cortex (dorsolateral PFC)

Source: Krueger et al., 2009; Shearer & Karanian, 2017.

The most relevant is a study by Bay and Lim (2006) who found correlations of MI and El. They used the Teele Inventory for Multiple Intelligences (TIMI; Teele, 1995) and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test - Youth Research Version (MSCEIT-YRV; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2014). The MSCEIT-YRV is a test that consists of four parts: Perceiving Emotions, Facilitating Thoughts, Understanding Emotions, and Managing Emotions. Some 360 upper primary school students (primary 4th and 5th grades) between the ages of 10 and 11 years from five different schools in Singapore participated in the research. Pearson correlation analyses showed that students’ linguistic abilities are positively correlated to their abilities to understand emotions (/-=.21”), manage emotions (/-=.15“), and their overall emotional intelligence quotient, EIQ (/-=. 16"). Spatial abilities are, however, negatively correlated with their abilities to understand emotions (/-=-.20**), manage emotions (/-=-. 13’), and their EIQ (/=-.15”). In addition, musical abilities are also negatively correlated to a student’s ability to understand emotions (/•=-. 12*). A positive correlation was found between bodily-kinesthetic abilities and the ability to understand emotions (/•=.12*). Interestingly, negative correlations were found between intrapersonal abilities and the abilities to facilitate thoughts (/-=-.13*), understand emotions (/•=-.21”), manage emotions (/-=-.18”), and their overall emotional intelligence quotient (/•=-. 21”).

Pourfeiz (2014) aimed his dissertation research toward finding the relationship between prospective English teachers’ multiple intelligences, emotional intelligence, learning styles, and their academic achievement. He used the MIDAS questionnaire for measuring MI and Schutte’s Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS: Schutte et al., 1998) for measuring El. SEIS as a trait El instrument was employed to assess the self-perceived and self-reported profiles of prospective English teachers in four dimensions - perception of emotions (PE), managing emotions in the self (ME), social skills or managing others’ emotions (MoE), and utilization of emotions (UE) based on the theoretical work of Salovey and Mayer (1990). The participants were senior student teachers at the English language teaching department of Hacettepe University in Ankara/Turkey (7V=102, Male: N=26, 25.5 percent and Female: N=16, 74.5 percent; both male and female participants were within the 48 to 23’ age group). His research results indicated positive correlations between linguistic intelligence and perception of emotions (r=.44”), managing one’s own emotions (r =.32”), and overall El (r=,30**). Furthermore, logical mathematical intelligence correlated significantly with PE (/-=.27**), ME (/-=.45**), MoE (/•=.23*), and overall El (/-=.36**), whereas musical intelligence correlated positively with MoE (r=.27”) and UE (/-=.20**). The results also showed positive correlations between kinesthetic intelligence and PE (r=.37”), ME (/-=.40**), and overall El (/-=.33**). There were also significant positive relationships between personal intelligences and El. That is, interpersonal intelligence correlated significantly with MoE (/-=.45”) and UE (/-=.34**). Likewise, intrapersonal intelligence correlated significantly with MoE (r=.27”) and UE (/•=.41”), as well as ME (/-=.31”) and overall El (/=.40**). The results further indicated significant correlations between spatial intelligence and PE (r=.29*“), and ME (r=.30*’) subscales of El, while naturalist intelligence correlated significantly only with ME (/-=.24”).

Shearer (2006) also examined the relationship between Ml and El using the MIDAS and Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i; Bar-On, 1997). The EQ-i is a mixed El model and includes six main scales (total El, Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, General Mood, Stress Management, Adaptability) and 15 subscales that describe specific skills associated with the main scales (e.g., for Interpersonal: Interpersonal Relations, Empathy; and for Intrapersonal: Emotional Self-awareness, Self-actualization, Stress Management, General Mood, etc.). Research results were based on a sample of 85 participants, 30 males (35 percent) and 55 females (65 percent), the mean age is 35 years. According to Shearer’s 2006 research there are 25 significant El main scale correlations with the MI scales, which range from a low of /•=.23 (El total with Spatial) to r=.55 (El Interpersonal with MI Interpersonal). The MI Intrapersonal scale displays the greatest number of significant correlations with all of the El main scales. The El Intrapersonal and General Mood scales also displayed significant correlations with nearly all of the MI scales, except for the Music and Naturalist intelligence types. The Intrapersonal and Interpersonal scales for both measures manifested the strongest correlations with each other (r=.39 and r=.55, respectively). Other observed significant correlations were between El total and Intrapersonal intelligence (r=.44), and Adaptability with Math-logical and Intrapersonal intelligences (r=.44 and r=.42). The Stress Management El scale is most strongly correlated with Intrapersonal intelligence at r=.37.

As is being presented, there is minimal empirical evidence of MI and El complementarity research analysis. The previously mentioned studies used the Schutte SEIS and the Bar-On EQi. The primary aim of our research was to examine the trait emotional intelligence concept of Petrides (2009) and its relationship to MI as measured by Shearer’s 2006 experimental version of the MI test. Trait El as measured by the TEIQue-SF was adapted to Slovakia by Kaliska, Nabelkova, and Salbot (2015). Previous studies support the relationships between the TEIQue and g-factor intelligence (fluid and crystalized as presented in Chapter 5) and to social intelligence (as presented in Chapters 5 and 7).

 
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