Aim of the research
Research exploring the relations between El and career difficulties is still limited, especially the relations between trait El models (e.g., Cooper’s, Sawaf’s, Weisinger’s, Higg’s, and Schutte’s models, or Petrides’s model). Thus, investigating the role of trait El as another El model offers a new research opportunity. Trait El is understood as explained in Chapter 1. Few investigations have been conducted on El in relation to career indecision, specifically analyzing the relationship between Petrides’s trait El model and the emotional and personality-related aspects of decision-making difficulties based on Saka et al.’s model (2008). The first attempts of the authors (Sollarova & Kaliska, 2018, 2018b) showed significant positive, though weak, relationships between the global trait El level and career decidedness. However, significant negative moderate to strong relationships were found between the global trait El level and global career decision-making difficulties and their three factors (especially the factor of self-concept and identity) in the sample of 156 Slovak high- school students. Trait El predicted a significant (almost 7 percent) amount of unique variance in career decision-making difficulties after controlling for the decidedness level with remaining significant negative moderate correlation. This current research is based on the previous results of the authors as well as on other findings on the role of El in career decision-making. The aims are to:
- • verify the already identified patterns of relationships between trait El and career indecision variables, specifically between trait El, emotional and personality-related aspects of career decision-making difficulties, and other variables (general and career decision-making self-efficacy) on a larger sample of Slovak high-school students.
- • identify the character of relationships between trait El and career decision-making difficulties, specifically how the specific domains of trait El predict aspects of career difficulties.
- • verify trait El as a predictor of career decision-making difficulties, above other personality- and career-related variables, such as generalized and career decision self-efficacy.
Several recent empirical studies have been conducted regarding the relationship of El to factors associated with decision-making, including career indecision (Di Fabio & Palazzeschi, 2008, 2009: Di Fabio, Palazzeschi, Asulin-Peretz, & Gati, 2013; Di Fabio, Palazzeschi, & Bar-On, 2012) or indecisiveness (Di Fabio et al., 2013). This research has been extended to explore possible links between El and various career decision-making processes including career decision self-efficacy (Di Fabio & Palazzeschi, 2008). The concept of self-efficacy offers the potential to be studied both as personality-related and career-related variables in the process of career decision-making. Career decision-making self-efficacy is considered an important factor in the process of choosing a career and in career paths construction (Betz, Klein, & Taylor, 1996), which is definitely relevant for young adolescents facing their second career choice.
In line with the research results mentioned above, w'e hypothesized the following.
- (HI) individuals with higher trait emotional intelligence levels would display lower levels of career decision-making difficulties.
- (H2) individuals with a higher level of career difficulties would self- perceive a lower level of career decision-making self-efficacy and generalized self-efficacy.
- (H3) individuals with a higher level of generalized self-efficacy would also have a higher level of career decision-making self-efficacy.
To verify the predictive value of trait El above career decision-making self- efficacy and generalized self-efficacy we hypothesized that:
(H4) trait emotional intelligence will explain a significant percentage of incremental variance above and over career decision-making self- efficacy and generalized self-efficacy in predicting career decisionmaking difficulties.
Finally, we investigated a research question (RQ): Which trait El factors (well-being, self-control, emotionality, sociability) wall persist as significant predictors of career decision-making difficulties w'hile controlling the remaining factors?