The application of EI in the larger society
Emotional intelligence has been applied to areas outside of the education field in Lithuania. The following section describes selected studies in various areas. These indicate the range of application of El and SEL to many areas of human relationships and illustrate how El is emerging in the larger society.
EI in corporate managers
Skarzauskiene and Parazinskaite (2010) evaluated managers in international companies in Lithuania. The sample of 201 participants consisted of subsamples in two industries: retail (103 respondents) and manufacturing (98 respondents) to compare their social, emotional, and cognitive competencies in relation to leadership. Maximum performance was considered when the manager’s capability was consistent with the needs of the job demands and the organizational environment. They found that among effective Lithuanian executives, levels of both emotional and social intelligence competencies were higher than cognitive intelligence competencies. In comparing both industries, executives in the manufacturing industry possessed a higher level of competencies with regard to systems-thinking while executives in the retail industry had greater levels of emotional and social intelligence competency.
EI of Lithuanian and Latvian student athletes
Malinauskas and Vazne (2014) examined El as a part of the professional development of sports education and compared Lithuanian and Latvian student athletes who were physical education majors. The independent random sample consisted of 227 student athletes from the Latvian Academy of Sports Education and 214 student athletes from the Lithuanian Sports University. The respondents were distributed from the 1st to the 4th academic year and all w'ere studying in the bachelor’s degree program in physical education. The gender distribution in the research sample were 299 male and 142 female. The Schutte Self-Report Inventory (SSRI; Schutte et al., 1998) was adapted from English for this study. The questionnaire was designed to facilitate the measurement of the respondents’ ability to identify, understand, utilize, and independently manage emotions in both themselves and others. The Lithuanian version of the SSRI showed an internal consistency value of .79 and a test- retest reliability coefficient of .84 for the overall questionnaire (Malinauskas & Sniras, 2010). The Latvian version of the SSRI showed an internal consistency value of .78 (Malinauskas & Akelaitis, 2018).
The comparison of the Lithuanian and Latvian student athletes revealed that Latvian student athletes had a better ability to use personal positive emotional experience (considered equivalent to optimism). No other significant differences were identified. The non-significant differences in El profiles between the two countries might speak to the cultural similarities that facilitate the development of El in each context.