Emotional intelligence measures in Poland

In Poland, several tools are available to measure El and its components. Many of these are self-report questionnaires and therefore assess El traits or self-perception of capacities. The following selected measures have been translated and adapted from their original English versions or represent new distinctly Polish El tools.

The Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Polish acronym INTE; Jaworowska & Matczak, 2001a, 2008) is the Polish adaptation of the Schutte Self-Report Inventory (SSRI; Schutte et al., 1998). It measures the El components: perception of emotions, evaluation and expression, use of emotions to facilitate thinking and action, and regulation of emotions in oneself and others. The questionnaire is used to measure emotional intelligence, understood as the ability to recognize, understand, and control one’s own and other people’s emotions, as well as the ability to effectively use emotions in managing one’s own and someone else’s actions. INTE consists of 33 self- descriptive items on five-point scales. Standards have been set for middle and high-school students, students and adults aged 15-19, and for adults aged 20-54, in nationwide trials.

The Questionnaire of Emotional Intelligence (Polish acronym PKIE; Jaworowska & Matczak, 2001b, 2005) is based on the Salovey and Mayer (1990) El model. The questionnaire measures self-perception to accept, express, and use emotions in action, to understand and recognize emotions of other people, to control one’s own emotions, and to understand one’s own emotions. PKIE consists of 94 self-report items. The questionnaire allows the calculation of results on four factor scales and provides overall results. The scales included in PKIE are: AKC - accepting, expressing, and using one’s own emotions in action; EMP - empathy, that is, understanding and recognizing other people’s emotions; KON - control, also cognitive control, over one’s own emotions; and ROZ - understanding and realizing one’s own emotions. Standards have been set for students aged 14-20 and adults aged 18-71. The test is used for research purposes and for individual diagnosis when choosing a future education path or profession.

The Emotion Understanding Test (Polish acronym TRE; Matczak & Piekarska, 2011) enables the measurement of the ability to understand emotions. The test consists of a total of 30 tasks, grouped into five parts (subtests), including six coded tasks, based on verbal material. The results are determined in the form of one total result, determined on the basis of the number of correctly completed tasks. Standard Ten (Sten) score norms were developed for three age groups: 15-18 years, 19-25 years, and 26 years or over, separated for women and men.

The Emotional Intelligence Scale - (Polish acronym SIE-T; Matczak et al.,

2005) is used to measure the ability to recognize emotions. The total number of test items is 108 (18 photos x 6 emotions). The test material consists of 18 face photographs (half are male and half are female). Individual photographs are assigned sets of six emotion names. Each subject is to decide whether the face visible in the photograph expresses these emotions. Sten standards have been developed for high-school students and adults. The test is used in scientific research and - as an auxiliary tool - in diagnostic practice (counseling, advice, selection).

The Two-dimensional Emotional Intelligence Inventory (Polish acronym DINEMO; Jaworowska, Matczak, Ciechanowicz, Stanczak, & Zalewska,

2006) consists of 33 items containing descriptions of various situations that are sources of emotions. The inventory allows for the interpretation of results in relation to two factor scales and the overall result. The two scales included in DINEMO are: OTHERS - the ability to recognize, understand, and respect other people’s emotions, and ME - the ability to become aware, understand, respect, and express one’s own emotions. Sten standards have been set for junior high-school students, high-school students, and adults.

The Emotional Intelligence Test (Polish acronym TIE; Smieja & Orzechowski, 2007), is considered to be the Polish equivalent of the Mayer- Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002). The test measures: perception and understanding of emotions and the ability to use emotions and regulate them. The TIE test is used in individual work. It can only be used by people who have obtained the appropriate certificate.

The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale test (Polish acronym SPSE; Szczygie! & Kolanczyk, 2000), being the Polish adaptation of the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale test (LEAS; Lane, Quinlan, Schwartz, & Walker, 1990), measures an ability to name emotions and to understand the relationship between words and emotions. The respondents are rated on a scale of emotional development from verbal expressions that are physical experiences to more cognitive levels requiring discrete emotion words to complex responses indicating more than one discrete emotion.

The Emotional Intelligence Diagnostic Questionnaire (Polish acronym KDIE; Borkowska, Gqsiorowska, & Nosal, 2006), is the Polish version of The Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS; Salovey, Mayer, Goldman, Turvey, &

Palfai, 1995). It is a self- report measure that enables assessment of the general level of El and three dimensions of emotion perception, emotional knowledge, and emotion regulation.

The ALEX-40 Scale, Maruszewski and Scigala (1998), is a questionnaire that investigates the related construct of alexithymia. The scale measures: difficulties in verbalization of experienced emotions, impoverishment of imagination, weaknesses of insight into one’s own emotional experience, low emotional excitability, and concrete thinking.

Currently in Poland there are limited methods designed specifically for measuring emotional intelligence in children. The Polish adaptation of the Intelligence and Development Scale for Children (Jaworowska, Matczak, & Fecenec, 2012) begins to address this need for children aged 5-10 years. While the test is comprehensive, measuring a large range of cognitive skills, it does include subtest components that assess participants’ social-emotional competencies.

One measure that is currently in development by the chapter authors is the Emotional Intelligence Test in Children (Polish acronym TIED; Martyniak & Pellitteri, in development). This assessment method measures the ability to recognize, understand, express, and regulate emotions. The tool is administered individually and is designed to test children from 3 to 6 years of age and uses non-verbal material (photographs, pictures) with oral responses. Current validation studies are in progress.

Lubikowska (2015) carried out a study to verify the correlation between Polish task tests for measurement of emotional intelligence, or their components. The survey covered 43 individuals from the Mensa Poland Association, which associates people with an IQ quotient ranked in the top two percentages of population. The study participants included both women and men aged from 21 to 30 years. The test used the Emotional Intelligence Test (TIE), the Emotional Intelligence Scale (SIE-T) and the Emotional Understanding Test (TRE). The general findings were that participants scored higher on the El measures than the general population (Lubikowska, 2015). In another study Matczak et al. (2005) found correlations between the Emotional Understanding Test and the Emotional Intelligence Test, providing converging validity for these task measures. The methods of measuring emotional intelligence stir many controversies, however, since researchers differ in distinguishing El from personality traits with regard to self-report test formats. A challenge comes from the verbal format of the El tasks in the measures that may not accurately capture emotional capacities that tend to be of a visual or non-verbal nature, or may require procedural versus conceptual knowledge structures (Knopp, 2014).

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