Summary

Clinical instruction is a key component of health professions education. Much of the curriculum that is taught in the clinical setting is facilitated by instructors with little formal educational training. Individuals who are selected for teaching roles may be very capable healthcare practitioners, yet in most cases they will need to acquire a new set of skills as teachers. This transition from practitioner to practitioner-educator will undoubtedly require a shift in priorities and identity. The concept of teacher identity was introduced as well as the factors that contribute to its formation. Teacher identity provides a framework for how to function in a teaching role and contributes to one’s effectiveness as a clinical instructor (Beauchamp & Thomas, 2009).

Reflective practice: Measure of clinical instructor identity

You may be curious to find out your own level of teacher identity or, more specifically, your clinical instructor identity. The Measure of clinical instructor identity (MCII) survey estimates how strongly you identify as an educator in the clinical setting. There are no right or wrong answers to this survey; it is simply a means to establish your level of compatibility with the clinical instructor role. Please answer each of the following 20 questions as honestly as possible. The survey should take approximately ten minutes to complete. Please note: The reliability and validity of this survey has not been fonnally assessed. An additional copy of this survey and the scoring guide may be found in Appendix A and Appendix B.

Measure of clinical instructor identity (MCII)

1 How were you selected to be a clinical instructor?

_ I volunteered/applied for the role.

_ I was recruited/assigned to the role.

2 Have you always had an interest in teaching?

_ Yes

_ No

_ I am not sure

3 Which of the following are reasons you became a clinical instructor? (Mark all that apply)

_ I enjoy the opportunity to expand my own knowledge.

_ I get respect from my colleagues/supervisor.

_ I get satisfaction from sharing my professional knowledge.

_ I get satisfaction when my students do well.

_ I like providing career advice.

_ I like to interact with students.

_ I receive more pay/benefits for being a clinical instructor.

_ I want to make sure the healthcare workforce is well-prepared.

4 Which of the following concerns do you have about becoming a clinical instructor? (Mark all that apply)

_ I am not able to recognize when students have particular learning needs.

_ I did not volunteer to teach; it was just expected of me.

_ I do not have enough time for teaching.

_ I do not like interacting with students.

_ I get no extra compensation for teaching.

_ I have a difficult time evaluating student performance.

_ I have little patience for students who are having difficulties.

_ I might be asked a question that I cannot answer.

_ I receive little support from my colleagues/supervisor.

5 Which of the following qualities best describe you? (Mark all that apply)

_ I am a good listener.

_ I am a good role model.

_ I am able to communicate well.

_ I am able to reflect on my work.

_ I am enthusiastic/energetic.

_ I am familiar with adult education principles.

_ I am nurturing.

_ I am organized.

_ I am patient.

_ I consider myself an expert in my field.

_ I have a desire to teach.

_ I have a sense of humor.

6 Did you have any teaching experience prior to accepting a clinical instructor position?

_ Yes

_ No

7 Have you received any training or mentoring for your clinical instructor role?

_ Yes

_ No

8 Have you participated in any professional development related to teaching or education?

_ Yes

_ No

9 Would you participate in professional development related to teaching or education if it were made available to you?

_ Yes

_ No

_ I am not sure

10 Which of the following do you currently use or plan to use in your role as a clinical instructor? (Mark all that apply)

_ Case Studies/Scenarios

_ Demonstrations

_ Discussions

_ Performance Evaluations

_ Practical Exams

_ Questioning Strategies

_ Quizzes

_ Short Lectures

_ Student Self-Assessments

11 Do you talk with colleagues about your teaching experiences?

_ Yes

_ No

_ I am not sure

12 How would you describe your teaching style?

_ I teach the same way that I was taught.

_ I have developed my own style of teaching.

_ I am not sure.

13 Has your teaching style changed since you became a clinical instructor?

_ Yes

_ No

_ I am not sure

14 Are you able to adjust your teaching practices to meet students’ learning needs?

_ Yes

_ No

_ I am not sure

15 Do you feel confident as a clinical instructor?

_ Yes

_ No

_ I am not sure

16 Would your students consider you an effective teacher?

_ Yes

_ No

_ I am not sure

17 Are your students adequately prepared for future careers as healthcare professionals?

_ Yes

_ No

_ I am not sure

18 Have you grown either personally or professionally in your role as a clinical instructor?

_ Yes

_ No

_ I am not sure

19 Do you believe your role as a clinical instructor has contributed to your overall career growth?

_ Yes

_ No

_ I am not sure

20 Do you feel it is your responsibility to educate future healthcare practitioners?

_ Yes

_ No

_ I am not sure

Measure of clinical instructor identity (MCII) - Scoring guide

Use this key to determine your score on the Measure of clinical instructor identity (MCII) survey. Start with a score of zero and add or subtract points based on the answers you have selected. Once you have calculated your total score, compare it to the results at the end of this chapter to determine how strongly you identify as an educator in the clinical setting.

  • 1 How were you selected to be a clinical instructor?
  • (+2) I volunteered/applied for the role.
  • (+1) I was recruited/assigned to the role.
  • 2 Have you always had an interest in teaching?
  • (+2) Yes (0) No
  • (+1) I am not sure
  • 3 Which of the following are reasons you became a clinical instructor? (Mark all that apply)
  • (+1) I enjoy the opportunity to expand my own knowledge.
  • (+1) I get respect from my colleagues/supervisor.
  • (+1) I get satisfaction from sharing my professional knowledge.
  • (+1) I get satisfaction when my students do well.
  • (+1) I like providing career advice.
  • (+1) I like to interact with students.
  • (+1) I receive more pay/benefits for being a clinical instructor.
  • (+1) I want to make sure the healthcare workforce is well-prepared.
  • 4 Which of the following concerns do you have about becoming a clinical instructor? (Mark all that apply)
  • (-1) I am not able to recognize when students have particular learning needs.
  • (-1) I did not volunteer to teach; it was just expected of me.
  • (-1) I do not have enough time for teaching.
  • (-1) I do not like interacting with students.
  • (-1) I get no extra compensation for teaching.
  • (-1) I have a difficult time evaluating student performance.
  • (-1) I have little patience for students who are having difficulties.
  • (-1) I might be asked a question that I cannot answer.
  • (-1) I receive little support from my colleagues/supervisor.
  • 5 Which of the following qualities best describe you? (Mark all that apply)
  • (+1) I am a good listener.
  • (+1) I am a good role model.
  • (+1) I am able to communicate well.
  • (+1) I am able to reflect on my work.
  • (+1) I am enthusiastic/energetic.
  • (+1) I am familiar with adult education principles.
  • (+1) I am nurturing.
  • (+1) I am organized.
  • (+1) I am patient.
  • (+1) I consider myself an expert in my field.
  • (+1) I have a desire to teach.
  • (+1) I have a sense of humor.
  • 6 Did you have any teaching experience prior to accepting a clinical instructor position?
  • (+2) Yes
  • (0) No
  • 7 Have you received any training or mentoring for your clinical instructor role?
  • (+2) Yes
  • (0) No
  • 8 Have you participated in any professional development related to teaching or education?
  • (+2) Yes
  • (0) No
  • 9 Would you participate in professional development related to teaching or education if it were made available to you?
  • (+2) Yes (0) No
  • (+1) I am not sure
  • 10 Which of the following do you currently use or plan to use in your role as a clinical instructor? (Mark all that apply)
  • (+1) Case Studies/Scenarios
  • (+1) Demonstrations
  • (+1) Discussions
  • (+1) Performance Evaluations
  • (+1) Practical Exams
  • (+1) Questioning Strategies
  • (+1) Quizzes
  • (+1) Short Lectures
  • (+1) Student Self-Assessments
  • 11 Do you talk with colleagues about your teaching experiences?
  • (+2) Yes (0) No
  • (+1) I am not sure
  • 12 How would you describe your teaching style?
  • (+1) I teach the same way that I was taught.
  • (+2) I have developed my own style of teaching.
  • (0) I am not sure
  • 13 Has your teaching style changed since you became a clinical instructor?
  • (+2) Yes (0) No
  • (+1) I am not sure
  • 14 Are you able to adjust your teaching practices to meet students’ learning needs?
  • (+2) Yes (0) No
  • (+1) I am not sure
  • 15 Do you feel confident as a clinical instructor?
  • (+2) Yes (0) No
  • (+1) I am not sure
  • 16 Would your students consider you an effective teacher?
  • (+2) Yes (0) No
  • (+1) I am not sure
  • 17 Are your students adequately prepared for future careers as healthcare professionals?
  • (+2) Yes (0) No
  • (+1) I am not sure
  • 18 Have you grown either personally or professionally through your role as a clinical instructor?
  • (+2) Yes (0) No
  • (+1) I am not sure
  • 19 Do you believe your role as a clinical instructor has contributed to your overall career growth?
  • (+2) Yes (0) No
  • (+1) I am not sure
  • 20 Do you feel it is your responsibility to educate future healthcare practitioners?
  • (+2) Yes (0) No
  • (+1) I am not sure

Measure of clinical instructor identity (MCII)Results

If you scored 56-61 points: Congratulations, you are a natural born teacher or perhaps you already have a significant teaching background. This book will provide tips to help strengthen your teaching practices.

If you scored 41—55 points: You have a strong sense of clinical instructor identity and are destined to be an effective clinical educator. This book will provide the resources necessary to create meaningful learning experiences for your students.

If you scored 25-40 points: You have a good sense of clinical instructor identity and should do well in a teaching role with mentoring and practice. If you are feeling a little overwhelmed at the thought of training the next generation of healthcare professionals, use this book to build your clinical training skills as well as your confidence in working with students.

If you scored 16-24 points: You have a moderate sense of clinical instructor identity and will need to invest considerable time in developing your teaching practices and your teaching vision to be effective in an instructional role.

If you scored <16 points: Teaching in the clinical setting may not come easily for you; your natural tendencies are not in alignment with those of a clinical instructor.

Now that you have a general sense of your own level of clinical instructor identity, you will want to start building your skills as an educator in the healthcare environment. Chapter 3 will take you through the steps necessary to design a clinical rotation and provide some educational terminology to help you transition smoothly from clinical practitioner to clinical instructor.

References

Atkinson, D. (2004). Theorising how student teachers form their identities in initial teacher education. British Educational Research Journal, 30 (3), 379-394.

Beauchamp, C., & Thomas, L. (2009). Understanding teacher identity: An overview of issues in the literature and implications for teacher education. Cambridge Journal of Education, 39 (2), 175-189.

Beijaard, D., Meijer, P.C., & Verloop, N. (2004). Reconsidering research on teachers’ professional identity. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20, 107-128.

Boreen, J., & Niday, D. (2000). Breaking through the isolation: Mentoring beginning teachers. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 44 (2), 152—163.

Borich, G. (1999). Dimensions of self that influence effective teaching. In R. Lipka & T. Brinthaupt (Eds.), i'he role of self in teacher development (pp. 92—1117). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Brookfield, S.D. (1995). Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Deglau, D., & O’Sullivan, M. (2006). Chapter 3: The effects of a long-tenn professional development program on the beliefs and practices of experienced teachers. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 25 (4), 379-396.

Hammerness, K., Darling-Hammond, L., & Bransford, J. (2005). How teachers learn and develop. In L. Darling-Hammond &J. Bransford (Eds.), Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should learn and he able to do (pp. 358—389). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Ivason-Jansson, E., & Gu, L. (2006). Reflection and professional learning: An analysis of teachers’ classroom observations. Thinking Classroom, 7 (1), 4—10.

Jay, J.K., & Johnson, K.L. (2002). Capturing complexity: A typology of reflective practice for teacher education. 'Teaching and 'Teacher Education, 18, 73-85.

Merriant, S.B., Caffarella, R.S., & Baumgartner, L.M. (2007). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Moon, J. (1999). Reflection in learning and professional development. London: Kogan Page.

Murray, J., & Male, T. (2005). Becoming a teacher educator: Evidence from the field. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 125—142.

Warm, J., Maddock, M., Pell, A., & Hargreaves, L. (2006). Resolving identity dissonance through reflective and reflexive practice in teaching. Reflective Practice, 1 (2), 233-245.

Weidner, T.G., & Henning, J.M. (2004). Development of standards and criteria for the selection, training, and evaluation of athletic training approved clinical instructors. Journal of Athletic Training, 39 (4), 335-343.

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