Women’s Economic Empowerment: Insights from Africa and South Asia

I Conceptualising the relationship between economic growth and gender equalityGender equality, inclusive growth, and labour marketsIntroduction: markets as sites of gender subordinationGender inequalities in the labour market: theoretical approaches and an analytical frameworkGender inequalities in paid and unpaid work: empirical trends and patternsChoice without options: the distress sale of labourSuppression of choice: constraints on women's labour market optionsFrom survival to accumulation: gender and entrepreneurship continuumFrom exploitative to 'decent' work: gender and wage-labour continuumConclusionNotesII Syntheses of GrOW-supported research on women’s economic empowermentStalled progress: Why labour markets are failing womenLabour markets and women's economic empowermentBarriers to women's labour force participation: an overviewLabour market segregationHousehold formation and unpaid care workGender roles, norms, and violenceDiscussion and policy directionsNotesMacroeconomics and gender: Recent research on economic growth and women’s economic empowermentConceptual framework Defining and measuring women's economic empowermentHow women's economic empowerment can promote growthEconomic growth: how and under what conditions does it lead to WEE?Enabling factorsEmpirical findings: impact of gender inequality on growthEmpirical findings: impact of growth on gender inequalityWomen's empowerment in householdsOther enabling factorsThe role of macroeconomic policyConclusionNotesDeveloping care: The care economy and economic developmentBackground: current understandings on care and economic developmentWhat shapes the provision of care?How is the distribution of unpaid care time measured?How is care valued?What attention does care work get in public policies?Emerging evidence from GrOW-supported research studiesCross-national findingsCountry-specific insightsPolicies and programmes to support childcare and women's employmentWomen's wellbeing and empowermentImplications for policy and future researchNotesGender, social norms, and women’s economic empowermentDefinitions: social and gender normsFramework for understanding gender norms and women's economic empowermentInsights into the role of social and gender norms in facilitating or constraining women's economic activityNorms about whether women should undertake paid workNorms about suitable work for men and womenNorms about respectability, decorum, and mobilityNorms about care work, domestic work, and time useNorms around education, adolescent marriage, and childbearingNorms about sexual and gender-based violenceNorms around ownership and control of assetsWhat facilitates change in gender norms? Supportive policy and institutional environment for women's economic empowermentBuilding individual and collective voice through broad-based empowermentConclusionsNotesIII Evidence from GrOW-supported case studies in developing country contextsA mine of one’s own?: Gender norms and empowerment in artisanal and small-scale miningFormalisation and artisanal and small-scale mining in sub-Saharan AfricaGender norms and women's ASM livelihoodsGendered authority, ASM formalisation, and the prospects for empowermentMine site management structuresMiners' associations/cooperativesConclusion: a mine of one's own?NotesPicturing change through PhotoVoice: Participatory evaluation of a daycare intervention in an urban informal contextPhotoVoice as a useful tool for conducting research with marginalised groupsPhotoVoice as a tool for programme evaluationMethodology: using PhotoVoice to evaluate programme impactFindings: 'through the eyes of mothers'ConclusionPaid work and unpaid care work in India, Nepal, Tanzania, and Rwanda: A bi-directional relationshipUnpaid care work: dynamics and patterns Gendered divisions of labourThe drudgery of unpaid care workPaid work: dynamics and choicesBalancing care work and paid work: strategies and outcomesStrategies for balancing care work and paid workImpacts of combining paid work with unpaid careConclusion: women's economic empowerment or depletion?NotesWomen’s labour force participation in Sri Lanka’s northThe school-to-work transition for young females in sub-Saharan Africa: Comparative qualitative evidence from six countries
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