Four dot points to end the chapter

  • • Heuristics and biases influence the task of information gathering and reporting. Researchers can find themselves in the domain of gains or the domain of losses and they might become more cavalier or more conservative in their pursuit of information.
  • • The academic literature is more accessible than ever, but it is also very multidisciplinary. Combined with the volume of information that is now available, this context is certainly susceptible to heuristics and biases.
  • • Although not usually viewed as a gamble or risky prospect, searching for information whenever something important is at stake or depends on the outcomes of the search is essentially a decision-making process applied under conditions of risk and uncertainty.
  • • In the presence of risk and uncertainty, diversification has usually been found to be a worthwhile strategy. Multidisciplinary research and information teams are one way in which diversification can be introduced to reduce the risk of error and, possibly, increase the rewards accruing to those organisations with a strong commitment to research engagement.


1 William O. ‘Bill’ Baker, Bell Labs (quoted in Gertner 2012, p.251).


Antonelli, C. 1989. A Failure Induced Model of Research and Development Expenditure: Italian Evidence from the Early 1980s. Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organisation, 12,129-180.

Boulding, K.E. 1967. Towards a Theory of Protest. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 24,49-58.

Feldman, M.S. & March, J.G. 1981. Information in Organisations as Signal and Symbol. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26,171-186.

Garcia-Granero, A., Llopis, O., Fernandez-Mesa, A. Sc Alegre, J. 2015. Unravelling the Link between Managerial Risk-Taking and Innovation: The Mediating Role of a Risk- Taking Climate. Journal of Business Research, 68,1094—1104.

Gertner,J. 2012. The Idea Factory: Bells Labs and the Great Age of American Innovation. London, UK: Penguin.

Grandori, A. 2010. A Rational Heuristic Model of Economic Decision Making. Rationality and Society, 22, 477-504.

Gusenbauer, M. 2019. Google Scholar to Overshadow Them All? Comparing the Sizes of Twelve Academic Search Engines and Bibliographic Databases. Scientometrics, 118, 177-214.

Harter, S.P. Sc Peters, A.R. 1985. Heuristics for Online Information Retrieval: A Typology and Preliminary Listing. Online Review, 9,407-424.

Janssen, O. 2003. Innovative Behaviour and Job Involvement at the Price of Conflict and Less Satisfactory Relations with Co-Workers. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, 76,347-364.

Jones, M. Sc Sugden, R. 2001. Positive Confirmation Bias in the Acquisition of Information. Theory and Decision, 50, 59-99.

Kahneman, D. 2011. Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux.

Kahneman, D. & Tversky, A. 1979. Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk. Econometrica, 47,263—291.

Lakatos, I. 1970. Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes. In I. Lakatos & A. Musgrave (Eds.), Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.91-196.

Latham, S.F. Sc Braun, M. 2009. Managerial Risk, Innovation, and Organisational Decline. Journal of Management, 35,258-281.

Lau, A. Y.S. & Coiera, E.W. 2007. Do People Experience Cognitive Biases While Searching for Information? Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 14, 599-608.

Libby, R. Sc Fishburn, PC. 1977. Behavioural Models of RiskTaking in Business Decisions: A Survey and Evaluation. Journal of Accounting Research, 15,272—292.

Ling.Y., Simsek, Z., Lubatkin, M. Sc Veiga, J. 2008.Transformational Leaderships Role in Promoting Corporate Entrepreneurship: Examining the CEO-TMT Interface. Academy of Management Journal, 21,557-576.

Manns, C.L. & March, J.G. 1978. Financial Adversity, Internal Competition and Curriculum Change in a University. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23, 541-552.

March, J.G. 1996. Learning to be Risk Averse. Psychological Review, 103,309-319.

March,J.G. & Shapira, Z. 1987. Managerial Perspectives on Risk and RiskTaking. Management Science, 33,1404-1418.

Nisbett, R. & Ross, L. 1980. Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcomings of Social Judgment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Oliver, P.E. 1993. Formal Models of Collective Action. Annual Review of Sociology, 19, 271-300.

Olson, M. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and theTheory of Groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Pfeffer, J. & Leblebici, H. 1973. The Effect of Competition on some Dimensions of Organisational Structure. Social Forces, 52,268-279.

Schwenk, C.R. 1986. Information, Cognitive Biases and a Commitment to a Course of Action. Academy Management Review, 11,298-310.

Singh, J.V 1986. Performance, Slack and RiskTaking in Organisational Decision Making. Academy of Management Journal, 29, 562-585.

Slovic, P., Fischhoff, B. & Lichtenstein, S. 1977. Behavioural Decision Theory. Annual Review of Psychology, 23,1-39.

Tversky, A. & Kahneman, D. 1974. Judgement under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Science, 185,1124-1131.

Van Noorden, R. 2014. Online Collaboration: Scientists and the Social Network. Nature, 512,126-129.

Wehrung, D.A. 1989. RiskTaking over Gains and Losses: A Study of Oil Executives. Annals of Operations Research, 19,115-139.

Zhou.J. & George,J.M. 2001 .When Job Dissatisfaction Leads to Creativity: Encouraging the Expression ofVoice. Academy of Management Journal, 44,682—696.


< Prev   CONTENTS   Source   Next >