Antiamoebic Activity

In an in vivo study, P. longum (fruit), P. sarmentosum (root) and Quercus infectoria (nut gall) methanolic extracts were tested for their antiamoebic effects against Entamoeba histolytica. The combination of plant extract and metronidazole was found effective in the treatment of caecal wall ulcerations caused by E. histolytica (Ghoshal et al. 2002). Acacia catechu (resin), Amaranthus spinosus (whole plant), Brucea javanica (seed), P. longum (fruit) and Q. infectoria (nut gall) exhibited in vitro inhibition of Blastocystis hominis (Ghoshal et al. 1996). In another study, P. longum fruit and root extracts exhibited antiamoebic activity (Sawangjaroen et al. 2004). Piperine obtained from P. longum and ethanolic extract of P. longum can cure caecal amoebiasis (Choochote et al. 2006; Ghoshal et al. 2002). Aqueous extract of P. longum fruit exhibited giardicidal activity (Atal et al. 1981).

Antimicrobial Activity

P. longum extracts exhibited good antibacterial activity against Bacillus megaterium, Escherichia coli, Salmonella albus, S. typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Lokhande et al. 2007), whereas aqueous extract doesn’t exhibit any antibacterial activity. P. longum also possesses antitubercular activity (Zaveri et al. 20Ю; Chaithong et al. 2006; Naika et al. 2010).

Effect on Respiratory System

Piperine, a compound isolated from P. longum, exhibited antagonistic respiratory depression in mammals and amphibia induced by morphine or pentobarbitone, and increases the hypnotic response in mice. Piperine and nalorphine isolated from Piper sp. reversed morphine-induced respiratory depression in rats, whereas unlike piperine, nalorphine antagonizes morphine- induced analgesia in rats. Medullary stimulant factors were present in the petroleum ether extract of P. longum (Parganiha et al. 2011; Kulshresta et al. 1969;

Kulshresta et al. 1971; Zaveri et al. 2010). Piplartine, an alkaloid isolated from P. longum extract, suppresses the ciliary movements of esophagus in frog (Nabi et al. 2013).

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