P. longum milk extract reduces the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats and also protects guinea pigs from bronchospasm (Kokate et al. 1980).
P. longum ethanolic extract exhibits antihyperglycemic, antilipid peroxidative and antioxidant activities (Gaurav and Tripti 2013; Nabi et al. 2013; Manoharan et al. 2007), while indigenous herbal formulation increases appetite (Yadav et al. 2014).
Methyl piperine isolated from P. longum significantly decreases the total serum cholesterol and total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in rats, whereas, oil of P. longum inhibits the elevation of hepatic cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic mice (Singh et al. 2018).
Piper species, such as P. nigrum L., P. belle L., P. guineense Schumach, P. umbellatum L., P. pellucidum L., P. cubeba L. and P. sarmentosum Roxb show strong antioxidant potentials (Natarajan et al. 2006). P. betle L., P. walichii (Miq) Hand Mazz. and P. betloides C.DC collected from Northeast India also show antioxidant activity (Tamuly et al. 2015). It has been shown that the antioxidant activity of Piper species due to the presence of phenolic acids, flavo- noids like quercetin, catechin, coumaric acid and protocatecuic acid (Tamuly et al. 2015). Amrita Bindu, a polyherbal formulation made from the extract of Piper plants along with some other plants, is used as an antioxidant. The ingredients of this polyherbal formulation are P. longum, P. nigrum, Zingiber officinale, Cyperus rotundus and Plumbago zeylanica. The antioxidant strength of the ingredients of this polyherbal formulation was investigated and found in the following order: P. nigrum > P. longum > C. rotundas > P. zeylanca > Z. officinale (Natarajan et al. 2006).
P. longum roots exhibited weak opioid type analgesia but significant nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) type of analgesic activity in rats (Vedhanayaki et al. 2003).