Commercially Available Products Obtained from Various Piper Species

Plant-, animal- and mineral-based medicines used singularly or in combination are the basis of Ayurvedic or traditional medical practices. More than 30 dosage forms are usually prescribed by Ayurvedic physicians. Churna, vati, gutika, awaleha, asvas-arishtas, ghritas and tilas are some of the dosage forms. In earlier days, the physicians themselves used to handle the preparation of formulations, but now, they depend on the marketed products manufactured by Ayurvedic pharmacies. Trikatu, a Sanskrit word meaning three acrids, is an Ayurvedic preparation of P. nigrum, P. longam and Z. officinalis. According to the Handbook of Domestic Medicine and Common Ayurvedic Remedies, 370 listed formulations contain either trikatu or its individual ingredients (Majumdar et al. 1978). Various formulations containing Piper species available as commercial products are listed in Table 1.4.

Phytochemical Analysis

The fruits, seeds, leaves, branches, roots and stems of Piper plants are rich in essential oils (Mgbeahuruike et al. 2017). Essential oils from Piper species have been analyzed by GC and GC-MS (Martins et al. 1998; Liu et al. 2007). Eighty compounds were profiled from ten Piper species cultivated in Hainan Island, China, after headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (Hao et al. 2018). Besides essential oils, Piper species also contain other polar constituents, and hence, HPTLC and HPLC methods have been used for the identification and quantification of constituents from the genus Piper (Variyar and Bandyopadhyay 1994; Hamrapurkar et al. 2011; Wood et al. 1988; Hazra et al. 2018; Rajopadhye et al. 2011; Rao et al. 2011; Kamal et al. 2016). LC-MS has also been used extensively for the qualitative and quantitative determinations of the phytoconstituents of Piper species (Friedman et al. 2008; Scott et al. 2005a,b; Kikuzaki et al. 1993; Gu et al. 2018; Sruthi and Zachariah et al. 2010, 2016; Sun et al. 2007). Direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS), an ambient ionization mass spectrometry technique, can analyze materials in their native form (solids, liquids or gases) eliminating the need for sample

TABLE 1.4 Various Products Available in the Market Obtained from Piper Species

S. NO.

SPECIES

DISEASES

NAME

COMPANY

1.

P. longum

Treats cough and cold conditions

Dabur Sitopaladi Churna

Dabur

2.

P. longum

Building immunity

Da bur Chyawanprash

Dabur

3.

P. longum

Helps in relieving pain and hoarseness in throat

Dabur Khadiradi Gutika

Dabur

4.

P. longum

Helps in curing anemia

Dabur Lauhasava

Dabur

5.

P. longum

Helps in treating congestion

Dabur Vasavaleha

Dabur

6.

P. longum

Helps in relieving indigestion problems

Dabur Triphala Churna

Dabur

7.

P. longum

Helps in treating asthma and bronchitis

Dabur Shwaasamrit

Dabur

8.

P. longum

Improves gastric function

Himalaya Trikatu

Himalaya

9.

P. longum

Helps in improving cardiovascular functions

Himalaya Herbals Abana 60

Himalaya

10.

P. nigrum

Reduces the stress level

Himalaya Tentex Forte

Himalaya

11.

P. nigrum

Improves the digestion

Himalaya Gasex

Himalaya

12.

P. longum

Protects the liver

Himalaya Biopure

Himalaya

13.

P. nigrum

Helps in relieving digestion problems and enhancing the metabolism

Pippali Churna

Patanjali

14.

P. nigrum

Helps in building immunity

Baidyanath chyawanprash

Baidyanath

15.

P. longum

Helps in relieving digestion problems

Mahasankh Vati

Baidyanath (Continued)

TABLE 1.4 (Continued) Various Products Available in the Market Obtained from Piper Species

S. NO.

SPECIES

DISEASES

NAME

COMPANY

16.

P. longum

Helps in building the immunity

Maha Sudarshan Churna

Zandu

17.

P. nigrum

For chronic nightfall in men and adolescents

Baidyanath swapandosh

Baidyanath

18.

P. chaba

Helps in treating congestion and cough

Kantakari Avaleha

Da bur

19.

P. chaba

Helps in curing menstrual disorder

Lodhrasava

Da bur

20.

P. chaba

Helps in enlarging prostate gland

Baidyanath Prostaid

Baidyanath

21.

P. chaba

Helps in relieving stomach acidity

Divya Kumaryasava

Patanjali

22.

P. longum

Improves stomach problems

Divya Ashwagandharishta

Patanjali

23.

P. nigrum

Improves immunity, nourishes body tissues

Mrita SanjivaniSura

Baidyanath

24.

P. nigrum

Helps in treating asthma and relieving cough and cold

Vasarist

Baidyanath

25.

P. nigrum

Helps in gynecological conditions

Panchasav

Baidyanath

26.

P nigrum

Helps in relieving all types of worm

Vidangasav

Patanjali

27.

P. nigrum

Helps in treating viral infection

Mahasudarshan Ghan Vati

Patanjali

28.

P longum

Helps in treating cardiovascular problems

Hridyamrit Vati extra power

Patanjali

29.

P. nigrum

Helps in curing leucorrhea and pelvic inflammatory disease

Lukol

Himalaya

30.

P. chaba

Useful in treating all types of swelling, edema and inflammation

Shothari Mandura

Baidyanath

31.

P. chaba

Useful in treating fever during pregnancy

Garbhapal Ras

Baidyanath (Continued)

TABLE 1.4 (Continued) Various Products Available in the Market Obtained from Piper Species

S. NO.

SPECIES

DISEASES

NAME

COMPANY

32.

P. longum

For proper digestion

Gaisantak Bati

Baidyanath

33.

P. nigrum

Helps in treating heart diseases, intestinal worms, hernia

Kankayan Vati

Baidyanath

34.

P. longum

For proper digestion, abdominal pain, loss of appetite

Agnimukh Churna

Baidyanath

35.

P chaba

For all types of swelling

Shothari Mandur

Baidyanath

36.

P. chaba

Helps in treating uterus disorder

Pradarantak Lauh

Baidyanath

37.

P nigrum

Helps in treating cancer

Torcumin tablets

Himalaya

38.

P. longum

Helps in relieving mental stress, anxiety

Geriforte

Himalaya

39.

P. longum

Specially for infants to cure gastrointestinal disorder

Bonnisan

Himalaya

40.

P. longum, P. nigrum

For making toothpaste

Hi Ora-K

Himalaya

41.

P. longum, P. nigrum

Helps in treating asthma, cough and cold

Talisadi churna

Da bur

42.

P nigrum,

P. longum, Z. officinalis

Helps in relieving indigestion, dyspepsia and cough, and curing other jugular diseases

Trikatu churna

Patanjali,

Baidyanath

preparation (Cody et al. 2005). Psychoactive Piper species, P. methysticum and P. betle, have been examined by DART-MS fingerprinting followed by chemometric analysis leading to the differentiation and identification of these two species (Lesiak et al. 2016).

Standardization is a critical step in herbal medicine as it checks variations of phytoconstituents and ensures consistency in the quality of herbal products (Casazza et al. 2011; Kim et al. 2011; Heinrich et al. 2012). Continuing our work on Indian medicinal plants and their bioactivities, we have carried out phytochemical analysis of a number of Piper species. Metabolic profiling of Piper species (P. nigrum, P. longum and P. chaba) was carried out using DART-MS (Bajpai et al. 2010, 2012; Chandra et al. 2014). Quantitative determination and comparative analysis of the phytoconstituents were carried out in different plant parts (fruits and leaves) of ten Piper species using UPLC- ESI-MS/MS (Chandra et al. 2015).

 
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