Successful National Financial and Industrial Strategies for the Adoption of New Renewable Energies and the Creation of Exporting Companies

Jaime Torres-Gonzalez

Introduction

Some nations are more proactive and visionary in establishing regulatory frameworks and incentives that encourage the creation of companies and complete productive sectors. Tins stimulates the early development of technological innovation. One of the areas of human activity that requires urgent transformation is the generation of energy, given its effects on global warming. The threat of the growing pollution of the planet exists due to the current fossil fuels, which means a palpable risk for both human societies and ecosystems. This crisis requires urgent responses in terms of replacing fossil fuels and developing new energy alternatives.

Despite the progress achieved so far and the agreement signed at COP21 in Paris in 2015, it is clear that the replacement of the polluting fossil matrix is still very slow (IEA 2019, UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2018). It indicates that the risk of the sustainability of human activity on the planet is growing and that successfi.il schemes for the adoption of new renewable energies (NRE) should be expanded on a much larger scale and speed in all countries. The direct interventions explained by the young Swedish girl. Greta Thunberg at the UN COP24 on Climate change in Poland 2019 should be seriously considered:

“Our civilization is being sacrificed for the opportunity of a very small number

of people to continue making enormous amounts of money. Our biosphere is

University of Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano International Trade and Finance Program. Email: This email address is being protected from spam bots, you need Javascript enabled to view it со being sacrificed so that rich people in countries like mine can live in luxury ... Until you start focusing on what needs to be done rather than what is politically possible, there is no hope. We cannot solve a crisis without treating it as a crisis. We need to keep fossil fuels in the ground, and we need to focus on equity. And if solutions within the system are so impossible to find, maybe we should change the system itself... We have run out of excuses and we are running out of time.”

This research is organized to first look at the structure of the current global energy matrix and analyze its strong fossil component. It is shown that some countries use the most energy, leading to high polluting implications and that the share of renewable energies is still very low. The following sections analyze the mam policies, strategies and mechanisms that several countries, including Germany, China and India, have developed to successfiilly increase their generation of renewables. The objective is to understand the mam elements of the political economy that have allowed them to advance above average. In addition, analyze the cases of countries that have begun to generate significant amounts of NRE, such as Mexico and Costa Rica, and finally Colombia, a country that has recently explored new renewables. The work is concluded by considering the industrial and technological policies that two leaders, Germany and China, have implemented.

 
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