Bioactive Compounds in Marine Macro Algae and Their Role in Pharmacological Applications

Subramaniam Kalidass, Lakshmanan Ranjith, Palavesam Arunachalam, Amarnath Mathan Babu, and Karuppasamy Kaviarasan

24.1 INTRODUCTION

Marine organisms are a great source for the discovery of novel bioactive molecules with commercially valuable pharmacological applications (Heo and Jeon 2009; Dfaz-Rubio et al., 2009). Macro algae or seaweeds are the most important sustainable resources in the marine environment that can be used for industrial and therapeutic applications (Manilal et al. 2009), these produce numerous bioactive molecules with various structures and functional properties (Choi et al. 2002; Amarowicz et al. 2004; Shibata et al. 2008; Kong et al. 2009; Kim and Bae 2010). The bioactive molecules include sulfated polysaccharides, proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, minerals, and plant growth hormones (Chojnacka et al. 2012). Some of them are thought to be valuable with functional health benefits, and the extracted components of seaweeds will increase the value of the potential pharmacological and industrial aspects in a broad extent.

Brown algae, the Phaeophyceae, are the second largest and complex group of marine macro algae, representing 18 orders

and more than 2000 species (Guiry and Guiry 2011), that are available in the intertidal zone. Most of the brown algae have the pigment fucoxanthins that are responsible for the greenish- brown color, and hence the name. Brown algae produce a rich source of bioactive molecules, such as polysaccharides, proteins, pigments, and phlorotannins, and most of them are responsible for the specific bioactivities which give potential for their economic utilization. They produce a large amount of sulfated polysaccharides (e.g., fucans, laminarans, galac- tans, and sargassans) and polyphenols (phlorotannin, bromo- phenol, and meroditerpenoids) that are used for commercially important and global industrial applications. Seaweed polysaccharides are abundantly used for food, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications. Therefore, the seaweed-derived polysaccharide industries operate in extremely regulated surroundings.

For more than a decade, the isolated bioactive molecules from brown algae have been the subject of more attention in the fields of pharmacology and biochemistry. Bioactive compounds from brown algal extracts are known to reveal many biological properties, such as anti-viral, anti-coagulant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumoral actions (Costa et al. 2010; Shibata et al. 2008; Lee et al. 2008). In the last few years, sul- fated polysaccharides extracted from brown algae can be used in pharmacological applications (Yang and Zhang 2009). Hence, the main objective of this review paper is to find the present results on the biological properties of brown algae with their pharmacological applications. Moreover, additional efforts have also been made to update the information covered in new research articles on this subject. This communication aims toward the appraisal of bioactive molecules from brown algae with regards to pharmacological applications.

  • 24.2 BIOACTIVE COMPOUND IN MACRO ALGAE
  • 24.2.1 Polysaccharides

Seaweeds consist of different types of polysaccharides that have chemical structures that are related to their cell structure and algal taxonomic classification (Ferreira et al. 2012; Wijesinghe and Jeon 2012). The polysaccharide contents exhibit seasonal changes from one place to another, and 76% of dry weight is present in the total percentage of seaweeds. In prebiotics, seaweed polysaccharides enhance the growth of beneficial bacteria in the digestive system and also produce health-improving effects (Vidanarachchi et al. 2009). Bioactive-sulfated polysaccharides slow down the bacterial activity of many species other than viruses (Leonard et al. 2010). Various brown algal polysaccharides are found, but the most important are fucoidan, alginates, laminarin, and galac- tans (Ferreira et al. 2012), and most of them contain soluble dietary fibers that have a good effect on the digestive systems of animals.

24.2.2 Proteins

Proteins isolated from seaweeds have biologically active components, but there is not a lot of documentation on polysaccharides because of their different biological properties and structures. Generally, the protein content in seaweeds is lower than five percentage (Leonard et al. 2010), and the red and green algae have a higher protein content when compared to the brown algae. Proteins can be isolated from macro algae, and the most essential biologically active components are lectins, which attach to carbohydrates and contribute the most to the biological system, for instance, intercellular communication.

24.2.3 Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids

The two major classes of lipids that are present in seaweeds are phospholipids and glycolipids. If the environmental temperatures are decreased, polyunsaturated fatty acids will occur in seaweeds. In the marine environment, polyunsaturated fatty acids containing the species in cold waters live better than the species living in hot temperatures (Holdt and Kraan 2011). Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids play a vital role in regulating human health, and they are synthesized only in plants (Pulz and Gross 2004). Twenty carbon atoms as a minimum with two double bonds are present in these lipids. If the first bond is situated in the third carbon atom, then the lipid molecule is considered as omega-3.

24.2.4 Pigments

There are three major forms of pigments, i.e., carotenoids, chlorophylls, and phycobiliproteins that are found in seaweed pigments. Carotenoids, in the form of organic pigments, are present in chromoplasts and chloroplasts (Wijesinghe and Jeon 2012). These pigments are common in nature and available in the marine algae, plants, fungi, and some of the bacteria (Liaua et al. 2010; Li and Kim 2011). The three main groups, such as p-carotene, fucoxan- thin, and tocopherol play a significant part in carotenoids. The fucoxanthin has the total carotenoid content of about 70% and p-carotene substance, which are present in the values of 36 to 4500 mg/kg from the algal dry mass (Holdt and Kraan 2011). The carotenoid pigment is mainly composed of polyenes that are soluble in lipids, and many types of carotenoids that are available in different algal species are powerful anti-oxidants. The properties of these pigments have the capacity to reduce singlet oxygen and scavenge free radicals (Li and Kim 2011). The water soluble pigments are found in the cyanobacteria that produce the phycobiliproteins and crypto-monads (Mihova et al. 1996), and they hold a total algal dry weight of a few' percent.

24.2.5 Polyphenols

Polyphenols are one of the bioactive components that are found mainly in plants, including seaweeds (Antonisamy and Raj 2011). Macro algal extracts have a considerable amount of polyphenols, and their substance is powerful depending on the extraction method. The polyphenols are produced by means of the polymerization of phloroglucinol on the acetate-malonate pathway (Li et al. 2011; Wijesinghe and Jeon 2012). These polymers consist of various biological activities in the organisms that occur in the host defense mechanisms (Swanson and Druehl, 2002). Ascophyllum spp. has the highest amount of polyphenols compared to other seaweeds, whereas the lowest substances of these compounds are present in the Ulva spp. (Keyrouz et al. 2011; Craigie 2011). Tannins are a compound of polyphenols that are present in both marine and terrestrial plants. The polyphenolic substances like phlorotannin (eckol or dieckol) are a group of tannin compounds that are abundant in brown algae (Antonisamy and Raj 2011; Gupta and Abu-Ghannam 2011). The content of phlorotannin varies in the phlorotannin skeleton, which is composed of eight phenol rings (O’Sullivan et al. 2011), whereas in terrestrial plants, tannins generate about 3 to 4 rings (Antonisamy and Raj 2011). Phenol rings can be used as electron traps for the free radicals (Gupta and Abu-Ghannam 2011).

24.2.6 Minerals

Minerals are rich in seaweeds (Nwosu et al. 2011), and their biomass content is sometimes as high as 40% (Kumar et al. 2011) because seaweeds can occur in metal ions from salt water and give attention to those substances as carbonate salts (Aslam et al. 2010). The researchers reported the mineral substances were found in concentrates on harvested seaweeds on Japanese beaches. The highest concentrations were present in potassium (2.71 g/L), magnesium (0.19 g/L), and calcium (0.16 g/L) ions in the Sargassum ringgoldianum subsp. Coreanum extract. The Codium fragile have a good source of sodium ions that are found in 1.21 g/L (Kuda and Ikemori 2009). The high levels of magnesium and calcium ions are present in the Kapaphycus alvarezii (Rathore et al. 2009), and their concentrations in extracts were 581.20 mg/L and 460.11 mg/L, respectively.

24.2.7 Plant Growth Hormones

Plant growth hormones are available in seaweed extracts, which are used to induce plant growth and to improve the photosynthesis. Cytokinins are plant growth regulators that protect plants from temperature variations (Tarakhovskaya et al. 2007; Zhang et al. 2010), and these are synthesized by means of the bio-chemical modification of adenine. Other plant hormones are auxin, abscisic acid, and betaines that are found in macro algal extracts. Auxin functions to start the root formation and reduce its elongation, their concentration may vary, and it depends up on the species. Gibberellins play a major role to start seed germination and are formed in developing seeds from glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate. They were first identified in two brown algal extracts, such as a Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus spiralis (Tarakhovskaya et al. 2007). Abscisic acid is formed from carotenoids by more than 60 species of algae, and betaines are not usual plant hormones, which are also found in seaweed extracts (MacKinnon et al. 2010), and their role is to guard the plants from drought and frost (Craigie 2011). The brown algal extract, Ascophyllum nodosum, has a rich source of betaines (Khan et al. 2009; Craigie 2011).

  • 24.3 TYPES OF SEAWEED-DERIVED POLYSACCHARIDES
  • 24.3.1 Alginates

Alginate is an anionic polysaccharide that is composed of two hexuronic acids, namely, mannuronic and guluronic acids (Andriamanantoanina and Rinaudo 2010). They are present in the cell wall of about an 18%-40% dry weight basis of brown algae, such as Ascophyllum nodosum and Laminaria sp. (Rioux and Turgeon 2015). They are used as by-products in the production of food, such as a gelling agent, thickening agent, stabilizer, and encapsulation that are also useful for human health (Brownlee et al. 2009). In addition, alginate- based composite biomaterials are used for bone-tissue regeneration (Venkatesan et al. 2015a, 2015b).

24.3.2 Fucoidan

Fucoidan is the most important and dominant sulfated polysaccharide, which mainly is composed of fucose linked in (1, 3) and (1, 4) glycosidic linkage (Daniel et al. 2001). In the two brown algal families, such as Fucaceae and Laminariaceae, the cell walls are composed of 2%-10% dry weight of the fucoidans. Fucoidans are derived from numerous species of BA, such as Ascophyllum nodosum, Cladosiphon okamuranus, Fucus vesiculosis, and Undaria pinnatifida. Fucoidan has a higher bioactive potential, and pharmacological activities, such as anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-virus, anti-tumor, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and antiinflammatory have been performed (Smit 2004; Cumashi et al. 2007; Wijesinghe and Jeon 2012). Fucoidan will show potential in bone-tissue engineering during analyses for the biomedical field (Jeong et al. 2013; Lowe et al. 2016).

24.3.3 Laminarin

Laminarin is primarily formed of (l,3)-p-d-glucan with p (1, 6) branching (Rioux et al. 2007). Moreover, it is classified into two types of laminarin chains with mannitol and glucose, and their molecular weight is about 5000 Da. In brown algae, the laminarin content is up to 35% on a dry basis that varies depending on the species. Potential pharmacological activities are found in laminarin, for instance, anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity (Ren et al. 1994; Hoffman et al. 1995; Miao et al. 1999).

24.3.4 Ulvan

Ulvan is composed of water-soluble-sulfated polysaccharides, which are abundant in green algae and primarily consists of 1-rhamnose, d-xylose, d-glucose, and d-glucuronic acid (Rioux and Turgeon 2015). The cell wall of ulvan is formed of 8%-29% of dry weight (Lahaye and Robic 2007). They can be isolated with ammonium oxalate and precipitates of ethyl alcohol with water at 80°C-90°C (Lahaye and Robic 2007).

24.3.5 Agar

Agar is present in red algae formed of Ca-, Mg-, K-, and Na-sulfated esters of d- and 1-galactose units (Wijesekara and Karunarathna 2017). The cell wall consists of 20% of dry weight and is isolated from the Gelidium and Gracilarias genera. Moreover, Pterocladia and Gelidiella species are used to isolate agar and play a vital role in food and industrial applications.

24.3.6 Carrageenans

Carrageenans are sulfated linear polysaccharides formed of ammonium, Ca-, Mg-, K-, and Na-sulfated esters of d-galactose and (3,6)-anhydro-d-galactose (Wijesekara and Karunarathna 2017) that are naturally present in red algae. Three types of carrageenan are formed, i.e., kappa carrageenan (k), iota carrageenan (v), and lambda carrageenan (X). The cell walls of carrageenan consist of 30%-80% dry weight and are extracted from the Kappaphycus alvarezii and Chondrus cris- pus species. In carrageenan, the biological properties, chemical alteration, and its structural analysis have been reviewed (Campo et al. 2009). Tofu is a fermented food that mainly contains k/t-hybrid carrageenans, and it shows the maximum rheological properties, which could be a food additive to change its food textures (Shen and Kuo 2017).

24.3.7 Floridean Starch

Red algae contain the starch granules called floridean starch that are found on the outer surface of the plastids and lack amylase (Wijesekara and Karunarathna 2017).

24.4 BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF SEAWEEDS WITH SPECIAL FOCUSES ON PHARMACOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS

Seaweeds offer a good source of bioactive molecules with a broad range of pharmacological, therapeutic, and food applications (Table 24.1). The bioactive compounds, such as phe- nolics, fatty acids, steroids, and several acids are found in many structures of seaweeds that have the potential source of antibiotic or anti-fungal activities (Bhagavathy et al. 2011). Most of the seaweed extracts have been found to have biological activities, such as antibiotics, anti-viral, anti-tumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory (Cumashi et al. 2007; Costa et al. 2010; Bhagavathy et al. 2011; Wijesinghe and Jeon 2012). Several halogenated compounds contain bromine, chlorine, and iodine metabolites, and some of them like diterpenes and triterpenes are the potential source of various biological activities such as anti-bacterial, ichtyotoxic, anti-oxidant, anti-malarian, insecticidal, and cytotoxic (Shui-Chun and Yue-Wei 2010).

Polysaccharides have the immunological properties that range from non-specific stimulation of the host immune system as a result of containing biological activities, such as anti-viral, anti-infection, and anti-tumor effects to anti- mutagenic, hematopoietic, or anti-oxidant activity (Nwosu et al. 2011; Athukorala et al. 2006b; Wijesekara et al. 2011). Seaweed polysaccharides exhibit good immunomodulatory properties that are linked with anti-tumor effects. The sulfated polysaccharides are a source of pharmacological activities, such as anti-proliferative activity in cancer cell lines and inhibitory activity against tumors (Suganthy et al. 2010). The brown seaweed Sargassum stenophyllum contains the sulfated polysaccharides that are extracted to reduce vasculogenesis, inhibit the developmental angiogenesis in chick embryos (Dias et al. 2008), and in the brown seaweed Ecklonia cava, the anticoagulant activity was investigated (Wijesinghe et al. 2011). Many of the studies were carried out in fucoidans because those have potential biological activities, such as anti-coagulant, anti-thrombotic, immunomodulatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-cancer (Wijesinghe and Jeon 2012; Takahashi 1983;

Rioux et al. 2010). This molecule contains a high number of sulfate polysaccharides and less than 20% sulfate content that exhibits the potential of anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activity (Koyanagi et al. 2003). The anti-viral properties are also found in fucoidan toward viruses, such as HIV and human cytomegalovirus (Gupta and Abu-Ghannam 2011). Fucoidan polymers are recommended due to the stimulation of the host immune system against tumors (You et al. 2010).

Protein extracts have the potential source of anti-oxidant properties that are found in some of the phycobiliproteins, such as C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin. The role of protein in pharmacological applications is less compared to the polysaccharides and polyphenols. Natural pigments are one of the bioactive compounds in macro algal extracts that have been found in advantageous activities, such as anti-cancer (Moreau et al. 2006), anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, neu- roprotective, and anti-angiogenic (Pangestuti and Kim 2011). In recent years, the anti-oxidant molecules were identified as some of the pigments, such as fucoxanthin, astaxantin, and carotenoids (Heo et al. 2005). Several seaweed pigment products are recommended for use with anti-obesity, immunity booster, and many others that are available in the market (Dufosse et al. 2005).

In seaweed extracts, most of the polyphenolic compounds are present with photoprotective and anti-photo aging activities, which can prevent oxidative stress and damage from UV radiation (Shui-Chun and Yue-Wei 2010; Ryu et al. 2009; Jung et al. 2009; Kumar et al. 2008). They have the properties to suppress the lipid peroxidation in the anti-oxidant activity (Ryu et al. 2009). Phenol-rich extracts from seaweeds have the capacity to stop the digestive enzymes, to treat antidiabetic effects (Nwosu et al. 2011), and have the therapeutic potential for fighting bronchial asthma and allergic diseases. These compounds that are injected intraperitoneally resulted in a reduction of all asthmatic reactions (Jung et al. 2009). Tannins are plant growth hormones that are documented to exhibit their HIV-1 inhibitory mode of action by slowing down HIV-1 RT (polymerase and ribonuclease activities) (Gupta and Abu-Ghannam 2011).

Phlorotannins (polyphenols) are synthesized by algae that have the capacity to absorb UV radiation and perform as photo- protective cells against photo-damage (Li et al. 2011; Kang et al. 2010). These extracts can stop the dose-dependent relationship of a-amylase and a-glucosidase, whereas some other organisms are used to slow down the normal increase in postprandial blood glucose observed for about 20 minutes after a meal by 90% and repeatedly decrease the peak insulin secretion by 40% (Roy et al. 2011). Fucosterol is a compound of phlorotannins that is used to decline the serum glucose concentration, and it showed a reduction of sorbitol substances in rat lenses (Gupta and Abu-Ghannam 2011). Such compounds are used to guard the animals against ultraviolet В radiation (UVB)-induced skin carcinogenesis (Ryu et al. 2009) and natural anti-oxidants in various pharmaceutical products (Guinea et al. 2012). Ecklonia cava is a brown algal species that contains a large amount of phlorotannin derivatives, such as eckol and dieckol to decrease the intracellular reactive oxygen species, which are formed

TABLE 24.1

Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae with Various Functional Properties as Pharmacological Applications

Species

Compound

Biological Activities

References

Adenocyslis utricularis

Fucoidan

Inhibitory against FISV and Anti-HIV and Anti-viral

Ponce et al, (2003) and Trinchero et al. (2009)

Alaria marginata

Fucoidan

Anti-cancer

Usoltseva et al, (2016)

Analipus japonkus

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant

Ushakova et al, (2009)

Ascophyllum nodosum

Fucoidan and Laminaran

Immunomodulatory, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-coagulant, Anti-thrombotic, Anti-metastatic, Anti-tumor, Antiadhesive, Restenosis preventive; and Anti-angiogenic

Percival (1968); Ren et al. (1994); Hoffman et al, (1995); Miao et al, (1999); Chevolot et al. (2001); (1999); Anastase-Ravion et al. (2002); Matou et al.

  • (2002) ; Colliec-Jouault et al. (2003); Luyt et al.
  • (2003) ; Smitt (2004); Cumashi et al. (2007); Ushakova et al. (2009); Foley et al. (2011)

Bifurcaria bifurcata

Diterpenes

Cytotoxicity

Smyrniotopoulos et al. (2017)

C. novae-caledoniae

Fucoidan

Anti-tumor

Zhang et al. (2011)

Canistrocarpus cervicornis

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant, Anti-oxidant and Anti-proliferative

Costa et al. (2010); Camara et al. (2011)

Chnoospora bicanaliculata

Fucoidan

Anti-tumor, Anti-proliferation, and Anti-cancer

Haneji et al. (2005)

Chorda filum

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant

Ushakova et al. (2009)

Cladosiphon okamuranus

Fucoidan

Anti-proliferative, Anti-viral, Antiinflammatory, Anti-adhesive, Anti-tumor, Immunomodulator; Angiogenic, Gastroprotective, Cardioprotective, Restenosis preventive

Takahashi et al. (1998); Ushakova et al. (2009); Cumashi et al. (2007); Wijesinghe and Jeon (2012); Hidari et al. (2007); Nagaoka et al. (1999); Shimizu et al. (2005); Teruya et al. (2007); Kawamoto et al. (2006); Shibata et al. (2003); Shibata et al. (2000); Thornes et al. (2010)

Coccophora langsdorfii

Fucoidan

Anti-cancer

Imbs et al. (2016)

Colpomenia sinuosa

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant and Anti-cancer

Shora et al. (2018); Yousef et al. (2018)

Costaria coslala

Fucoidan

Anti-tumor

Matou et al. (2002)

Cystoseira sedoides

Fucoidan

Anti-inflammatory

Ammar et al. (2015)

Dictyopteris delicatula

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant, Anti-oxidant, Anti-tumor, and Anti-proliferative

Magalhaes et al. (2011); Costa et al. (2010); Bilan and Usov (2008)

Dictyota menstrualis

Fucoidan

Peripheral anti-nociceptive, Antiinflammatory, Anti-oxidant, Anticoagulant, and Anti-proliferative

Albuquerque et al. (2004. 2013); Costa et al. (2010)

Diterpenes

Anti-retroviral

Pereira et al. (2004)

Dictyota mertensis

Fucoidan

Peripheral anti-nociceptive, Antiinflammatory, Anti-oxidant, Anticoagulant, and Anti-proliferative

Costa et al. (2010)

Dictyota pfaffii

Diterpenes

Inhibitory against HSV-1 and Anti-HIV

Abrantes et al. (2010); Barbosa et al. (2007)

Dictyota polypodioides

Fucoidan

Anti-tumor

Sokolova et al. (2011)

Dictyota sp.

Fucoidan

Blood Clotting

Devi et al. (2016)

Diterpenes

Cytotoxic

Jongaramruong and Kongkam (2007)

Dictyota. Indica

Fucoidan

Anti-cancer

Yousef et al. (2018)

Ecklonia cava

Phlorotannin

Anti-diabetic, Anti-hypertension, MMP inhibition, Immunomodulatory, Anti-HIV, Anti-oxidant, Anti-allergy inhibition of melanin formation, Anti-proliferative, Anti-cancer, Anti-tumor Whitening effect, Anti-photoaging

Okada et al. (2004); Lee et al. (2009); Jung et al.

  • (2006) ; Ryu et al. (2009); Lee et al. (2010); Park et al. (2010); Shibata et al. (2008); Li et al. (2009); Yoon et al. (2009); Artan et al. (2008); Ahn et al. (2004); Heo (2009); Kong et al. (2009); Ahn et al.
  • (2007) ; Kang et al. (2005); Park et al. (2008); Ahn et al. (2010); Kim et al. (2006); Wijesinghe et al. (2011); Ryu et al. (2008); Lee et al. (2008);

Ah Kang et al. (2006. 2007); Joe et al. (2006)

Fucoidan

Anti-proliferative, Anti-cancer, Anti-tumor, Anti-coagulative, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-allergy, and Anti-thrombotic

Athukorala et al. (2009); Jung et al. (2007); Kang et al. (2011); Athukorala et al. (2006); Ermakova et al. (2011); Yamamoto et al. (1984); Nishino et al. (1989.1991)

TABLE 24.1 (Continued)

Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae with Various Functional Properties as Pharmacological Applications

Species

Compound

Biological Activities

References

Ecklonia arborea

Phlorotannin

Anti-allergy

Sugiura et al. (2006)

Ecklonia bicyclis

Phlorotannin

Anti-HIV. Anti-oxidation. Anti-diabetic, and MMP inhibition

Okada et al. (2004); Shibata et al. (2008); Lee et al. (2009.2010)

Ecklonia kurome

Phlorotannin

Anti-HIV, Anti-oxidation, Bactericidal, Algicidal, Anti-allergy, Anti-diabetic, Tyrosinase inhibitor. Anti-photoaging, and Anti-hypertension

Shibata et al. (2008, 2003); Lee et al. (1996); Jung et al. (2006. 2008)

Fucoidan

Anti-proliferative, Anti-tumor, Anticoagulant, Anti-oxidant, Anti-thrombotic, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-cancer

Ermakova et al. (2011); Yamamoto et al. (1984); Nishino et al. (1989); (1991); Hu et al. (2001); Kang et al. (2011)

Eisenia arborea

Pholorotannin

Anti-diabetic and Anti-allergy

Sugiura et al. (2007)

Eisenia bicyclis

Fucoidan

Anti-cancer

Vischuk et al. (2009)

Fucoidan; laminaran

Anti-proliferative, Anti-tumor, Anticoagulant, Anti-tumor, and Anti-cancer

Yamamoto et al. (1984); Takahashi (1983); Usui et al. (1980); Rioux et al. (2010)

Enteromorpha prolifera

Fucoidan

Immunomodulatory

Kim et al. (2011)

Epinephelus bruneus

Sodium alginate

Immunomodulatory

Harikrishnan et al. (2011)

Epinephelus coioides

Sodium alginate

Immunomodulatory

Cheng et al. (2007)

Fucus distichus

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant

Ushakova et al. (2009)

Fucus evanescens

Fucoidan

Anti-tumor, Anti-metastatic, Anti-viral, Anti-coagulant, Thrombolytic, Hepatoprotective, Immunomodulatory, and Anti-cancer

Alekseyenko et al. (2007); menshova et al. (2016); Kuznetsova et al. (2003); Ushakova et al. (2009)

Fucus serratus

Polyphenol

Anti-oxidant

O'Doherty et al. (2011)

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant

Ushakova et al. (2009)

Fucus sp.

Fucoidan

Anti-cancer activity and Immunomodulation

Xue et al. (2012); Kim et al. (2010)

Laminaran

Anti-tumor, Anti-bacterial, immunomodulator, Anti-coagulant, Decreases liver triglyceride, cholesterol and phospholipid levels; Serum hypocholesterolemic. Hypotensive

Hoffman et al. (1995); Miao et al. (1999); Percival (1968); Ren et al. (1994)

Fucus spiralis

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant

Ushakova et al. (2009)

Fucus vesiculosus

Fucoidan

Inhibitor of avian RT, Anti-HIV, Immunomodulatory, Anti-viral, Antitumor, Anti-proliferative, Anti-adhesive, Anti-coagulant, Anti-oxidant, Anti- metastatic, Anti-inflammatory, Anti- angiogenic, Anti-thrombotic

Queiroz et al. (2008); Mouriio (2004); Kim and Joo (2008); Yang et al. (2008); Choi et al. (2005); Costa et al. (2010); Cumashi et al. (2007); Ale et al. (2011); Beress et al. (1993); Bilan et al. (2002); Mourao and Pereira (1999); Pereira et al. (1999); Nakamura et al. (2006); Park et al. (2011); Synytsy; et al. (2010); Yang et al. (2006. 2008); Kim et al. (2008); Do et al. (2010); Jintang et al. (2010); De Souza et al. (2007); Dockal et al.. 2011: O'Doberty et al. (2011); Ushakova et al. (2009)

Hizikia fusiforme

Fucoidan

Immunomodulatory Anti-coagulant and Anti-thrombotic

Jeong et al. (2015); Dobashi et al. (1989)

Ishige okamurae

Phlorotannin

Whitening effect. Anti-diabetic, Antioxidant, and Anti-HIV

Heo et al. (2009. 2010); Alin et al. (2006)

Iyngaria stellate

Fucoidan

Anti-cancer

Yousef et al. (2018)

Laminaria digitata

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant and Anti-thrombic

Ushakova et al. (2009); Grauffel et al. (1989)

Laminaria japonica

Laminaran

Anti-oxidant, Hypolipidemic activities, Anti-apoptotic

Cheng et al. (2011); Zha et al. (2012); Kim et al. (2006); Li et al. (2011)

Fucoidan

Anti-lipidemic, Increases HDL, Anti-viral, Anti-tumor, Anti-oxidant, Neuroprotective, Immunomodulatory, and Anti-inflammation

Fedorov et al. (2013); Cumashi et al. (2007); Vishchuk et al. (2011); Xiaolin et al. (1995); Dockal et al. (2011).

TABLE 24.1 (Continued)

Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae with Various Functional Properties as Pharmacological Applications

Species

Compound

Biological Activities

References

Laminaria saccharina

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant

Ushakova et al. (2009)

Laminarin

Skin treatment

Yvin et al. (1999)

Laminaria sp.

Laminaran

Anti-tumor. Anti-coagulant, Decreases Liver triglyceride, Cholesterol and Phospholipid levels, Serum Hypocholesterolemic, Hypotensive, Anti-bacterial, Immunomodulatory

Hoffman et al. (1995): Miao et al. (1999): Ren et al. (1994): Park et al. (2012. 2013); Cheng et al. (2011)

Fucoidan

Anti-oxidant, Anti-coagulant, Antithrombotic, Anti-adhesive, Antiproliferative, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-angiogenic, Anti-metastatic

Cumashi et al. (2007); Chevolot et al. (1999): Yamamoto et al. (1984): Usov et al. (1998): Maruyama and Yamamoto (1984); Kitamura et al. (1992): Huang et al. (2010): Xue et al. (2004)

Laminaria uryanovae

Fucoidan

Anti-tumor, Anti-proliferation, Anti-cancer

Lee et al. (2008)

Leathesia difformis

Fucoidan

Anti-viral

Feldman et al. (1999)

Lessonia vadose

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant, Anti-tumor, Anti-thrombotic

Li et al. (2008)

Lobophora variegata

Fucoidan

Anti-oxidant, Anti-coagulant, Anti-inflammatory

Medeiros et al. (2008): Paiva et al. (2011)

Monocystis pyrifera

Sodium alginate

Immunomodulatory

Fujiki and Yano (1997)

Okinawa mozuku

Fucoidan

Anti-proliferative, Antiviral, Antiinflammatory, Anti-adhesive, Anti-tumor, Immunomodulator, Angiogenic, Gastroprotective, Cardioprotective, Restenosis preventive

Cumashi et al. (2007); Wijesinghe and Jeon (2012); Hidari et al. (2008): Nagaoka et al. (1999); Shimizu et al. (2005); Teruya et al. (2007): Kawamoto et al. (2006): Shibata et al. (2000. 2003); Thornes et al. (2010)

Padina boryana

Fucoidan

Anti-cancer

Usoltseva et al. (2018)

Padina gymnospora

Fucoidan

Anti-oxidant, Anti-coagulant, Antithrombotic, Anti-viral

Costa et al. (2010); Silva et al. (2005): Zhu et al. (2003): De Souza et al. (2007)

Padilla pavonica

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant and Anti-HIV

Shora et al. (2018): Mohamed and Agili (2013)

Padilla sp.

Fucoidan

Cytotoxicity and Anti-oxidant

Isnansetyo et al. (2017); Dang et al. (2018)

Padilla tetrastomatica

Fucoidan

Immunomodulatory, Anti- bacterial, Anti-coagulant, Blood Clotting

Rani et al. (2017): Chandini et al. (2008)

Pelvelia canaliculala

Fucoidan

Anti-viral

Klarzynski et al. (2003)

Pelvelia fastigiata

Fucoidan

Anti-viral

Venkateswaran et al. (1989)

Pelvelia siliquosa

Phlorotannin

Anti-diabetic

Lee et al. (2004)

Phyllospora comosa

Fucoidan

Anti-oxidant

Dang et al. (2018)

Punctaria plantaginea

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant and Anti-thrombotic

Ustyuzhanina et al. (2016)

Saccharina cichorioides

Fucoidan

Anti-cancer

Vischuk et al. (2009)

Sargassm fusiforme

Fucoidan

Immunomodulatory

Huang et al. (2010)

Sargassum cristaefolium

Fucoidan

Anti-inflammatory

Wuet al. (2015)

Sargassum duplicatum

Laminaran. Fucoidan and Alginic acid

Anti-diabetic, Anti-cancer

Hardoko et al. (2014); Usoltseva et al. (2017)

Sargassum filipendula

Fucoidan

Anti-oxidant, Anti-proliferative

Costa et al. (2010, 2011)

Sargassum fulvellum

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant, Anti-thrombotic

Zoysa et al. (2008)

Sargassum hemiphyllum

Fucoidan

Immunomodulatory

Hwang et al. (2011)

Sargassum henslowianum

Fucoidan

Anti-proliferative, Anti-tumor

Ale et al. (2011)

Sargassum horneri

Fucoidan

Anti-tumor, Anti-viral, Anti-cancer

Ale et al. (2011): Hoshino et al. (1998); Ermakova et al. (2011)

Sargassum kjelimanianum

Fucoidan

Anti-cancer

Yamamoto et al. (1981)

Sargassum latifolium

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant

Shora et al. (2018)

Sargassum linearifolium

Fucoidan

Anti-oxidant

Dang et al. (2018)

Sargassum marginatum

Polyphenol

Anti-oxidant

Chandini et al. (2008)

Sargassum mcclurei

fucoidan

Anti-cancer, Anti-HIV

Thuy et al. (2015)

Sargassum muticum

Polyphenol

Anti-cancer

Namvaret al. (2013)

Sargassum oligocystum

Fucoidan

Anti-bacterial

Rani et al. (2017)

Sargassum patens

Fucoidan

Anti-viral

Zhu et al. (2003)

TABLE 24.1 (Continued)

Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae with Various Functional Properties as Pharmacological Applications

Species

Compound

Biological Activities

References

Sargassum podocanthum

Fucoidan

Anti-oxidant

Dang et al. (2018)

Sargassum polycystum

Fucoidan

Anti-HIV. Immunomodulatory, Antioxidant, and Anti-cancer

Thuy et al. (2015): Chotigeat et al. (2004); Palanisamy et al. (2017)

Sargassum siliquastrum

Fucoidan

Anti-oxidant

Heo et al. (2008); Heo and Jeon (2009)

Sargassum sp.

Fucoidan

Anti-tumor, Anti-oxidant, Emulsification, Cytotoxicity, Prevent hyperlipidemia. Normalize dislipidemia

Sokolova et al. (2011); Ale et al. (2011); Duarte et al. (2001); Hoshino et al. (1998); Isnansetyo et al. (2017); Raghavendran et al. (2005); Josephine et al. (2007)

Sargassum tenerrimum

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant

Guru et al. (2013)

Sargassum vestitum

Fucoidan

Anti-oxidant

Dang et al. (2018)

Sargassum vulgare

Alginic acid

Anti-tumor

De Souza et al. (2007)

Sargassum wighti

Alginic acid

Immunomodulatory

Kudus et al. (2017)

Fucoidan

Immunomodulatory. Hepatoprotective, Anti-coagulant, Blood Clotting

Immanuel et al. (2012); Kanimozhi et al. (2013); Prabu et al. (2016); Guru et al. (2013); Jamuna Devi et al. (2016)

Sodium alginate

Immunomodulatory

Immanuel et al. (2012)

Scytothamnus australis

Fucoidan

Anti-HSVl

Wozniak et al. (2015)

Spatoglossum schroederi

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant, Anti-thrombotic

Almeida-Lima et al. (2011)

Fucoidan and Alginic acid

Anti-viral

Queiroz et al. (2008)

Spatoglossum schroederi

Fucoidan

Anti-thrombotic, Peripheral antinociceptive, Anti-proliferative, Antiadhesive, Anti-oxidant

Costa et al. (2010); Almeida-Lima et al. (2010); (2011); Farias et al. (2011); Rocha et al. (2005); Alwarsamy et al. (2016)

Turbinaria conoides

Polyphenol

Anti-oxidant

Chandini et al. (2008)

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant activity

Guru et al. (2013)

Alginic acid

Anti-oxidant

Chattopadhyay et al. (2010)

Turbinaria decurens

Laminaran, Fucoidan and Alginic acid

Anti-diabetic

Hardoko et al. (2014)

Turbinaria ornate

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant, Anti-HIV, immunomodulatory, Anti-bacterial

Guru et al. (2013); Thuy et al. (2015); Rani et al. (2017)

Turbinaria sp.

Fucoidan

Cytotoxicity

Isnansetyo et al. (2017)

Undaria pinnatifida

Fucoidan

Anti-coagulant, Anti-tumor, Serum hypocholesterolemic. Hypotensive, Anti-bacterial, Immunomodulatory, Anti-proliferative, Induced osteoblastic differentiation

Hemmingson et al. (2006); Yang et al. (2008); Yoo et al. (2007); Hayashi et al. (2008); Faggio et al. (2015); Hoffman et al. (1995); Miao et al. (1999); Ren et al. (1994) Preobrazhenskaya et al. (1997); Fedorov et al. (2013); Chevolot et al. (1999); Synytsya et al. (2010); Thompson and Dragar (2004); Maruyama et al. (2003); Clio et al. (2009. 2011); Maruyama et al. (2005)

by gamma-ray radiation (Li et al. 2011). In pharmaceutical applications, bioactive compounds, such as phlorotannin and dieckol have the potential of a whitening effect (Gupta and Abu-Ghannam 2011). Hence, phlorotannins have the potential to cure skin diseases and be used in pharmaceuticals.

Rich extracts of polyphenol and isolated phlorotannin have the potential to stop the multiplication of cancer cells and to manipulate anti-inflammatory responses (Nwosu et al. 2011). For example, Eucheuma cottonii contains rich polyphenol extracts that have the potential of anti-proliferative activity against human breast cancer cells while they are non-toxic to normal cell lines (Namvar et al. 2012). The extracts of the

P. palmate species possess the anti-oxidant activities that are associated with the occurrence of secondary metabolites and function as the UV-absorbing sunscreen molecule (Yuan and Walsh 2006). Most of the phlorotannins that were extracted from Eisenia arborea were documented to have anti-aller- gic properties. The seaweed extracts of Sargasum hemiph- ullum (brown algae) are used in the treatment of various allergic diseases and Korean folk medicine (Vo et al. 2012). Phloroglucinol is a derivative of phlorotannin that released a maximum anti-proliferative activity in a human breast cancer cell and stimulates a major proliferative inhibition and apoptosis (Gupta and Abu-Ghannam 2011).

24.5 CONCLUSION

Biologically active compounds from seaweeds are a key product for the manufacturing of bio-based materials in food, pharmaceutics, therapeutics, and cosmetics. Different types of bioactive molecules can be either formed or released by marine macroalgae. Seaweeds are a rich source of polysaccharides; many of them contain sulfated polysaccharides. Even so, few similarities can be made among the polysaccharides from every group of organisms, and these can be diverse and morphologically varied. Several advantageous bioactivities have been demonstrated by the polysaccharides and polyphenols, both in vitro and in vivo.

Browm algae are well known owing to simply being available producers of sulfated polysaccharides. These produce a variety of significant polyphenolic compounds (phlorotannins), polysaccharides, and carotenoids, together called bioactive compounds. This review describes the brown algal extracts and chemically defined bioactive compounds of natural sources that exhibit a variety of biological effects. The functional metabolites of browm algae show' a potential approach toward the pharmaceutical preparations. In conclusion, the brown algal bioactive compounds have the potential sources of bioactivities that can be used in search of novel functional applications in the relevant pharmaceuticals.

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25 Fisher Folks Usage of Medicinal Plants

 
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