The Future of Doctoral Research: Challenges and Opportunities

I Doctoral research in the changing universityThe changing face of doctoral educationConceptual and theoretical issuesA short history of the proliferation of the doctorateType and format of the doctorateAssessment of the doctorateQuality and standards of the doctorateDestinations of doctoral graduatesConclusion: decision time for the doctorate?ReferencesAgency in doctoral education: Towards Graduate School cohesion and a heightened societal awarenessDoctoral student agencyDoctoral supervisor agencyGraduate School leadershipConclusion: Graduate School cohesion and societal awarenessReferencesDoctoral reform for the 21st centuryThe development of attributes needed in the 21st centuryA model for integrative reform: the UBC Public Scholars InitiativeMany students are yearning for the legitimization of their passions to make a difference, and the means to achieve thatThe growing professional identities of many doctoral students are often not supported in traditional academic environments, or are sometimes actively stifledThe academy is somewhat divided in its acceptance of broadened forms of scholarshipWhile such research can help students feel better prepared for careers outside the academy, it also can have the effect of igniting or re-igniting a desire to pursue an academic careerResearch that involves different perspectives, disciplines, collaborators, and methodologies can have a more profound impact, depth, and nuance than more conventional researchThe national viewOther avenues for integrative reformConclusionsReferencesIs it time for a central campus office to ensure quality in doctoral education in the 21st century?Definition of pertinent termsA graduate division’s basic functions and rolesChanges to forms of doctoral education and student numbersQuality assurance coordinationInitiator and catalyst for intellectual innovationInterdisciplinary and inter-institutional doctoral education and trainingIncreasing international research and international doctoral studentsSupervision and mentoringProfessional development and career support of doctoral candidatesEthics trainingInstitutional research unitInclusive (post)graduate community builderConclusionNotesReferencesMind the gap: A description of US doctoral education, challenges, and the skills gapThe face of doctoral education todayJob market for PhDsWhere are they employed?Funding, level of debt, and time to degreeDoctoral trainingChallenges for careers in business and governmentNeed to train to teachNeed for mental health and intellectual supportChanging types of faculty positionsRecommendationsBridging the research–teaching gapMeeting the challenge of a more diverse student populationConclusionReferencesWorking towards future epistemic justice: Incorporating transcultural and Indigenous knowledge systems in doctoral educationOur standpointsPostcolonial/decolonial theoretical positioningEpistemic justiceDecolonising doctoral educationIndigenous languages, theories and knowledge protocolsSouthern, transcultural and Indigenous concepts, proverbs or wisdomInvolvement of Elders, traditional knowledge holders and community membersRespect for the role of ancestors and spiritual knowledgeExamination processesPractical strategies for doc supervisors for epistemic justice in doc educationConclusion: an invitation …ReferencesII Collaborations and fundingTrust within capacity building for the development of supervision training: A case study of Sweden and MozambiqueThe concept of trustPrevious researchCase presentationThe context: Eduardo Mondlane University in MozambiqueThe case: a supervision training subcomponentMethod and empirical materialResultsThe land of interpretationsSuspension: a leap of faithThe land of expectationsConcluding discussionReferencesIdentifying key factors in successful bidding for doctoral trainingApplying to lead a Centre for Doctoral TrainingFeatures of the callUniversity of Bristol approachKey factors in successful bidsArticulating areas of skills deficit in the global doctoral graduate marketPreparation for an agile futureInnovation in an integrated training programmeInterdisciplinarityCross-cohort training in Responsible Innovation6Strategic partnerships with external organisationsConclusionNotesReferencesThe interplay between policy and fundingBackgroundWellcome and PhD training: a brief historyWellcome’s 2017 review of UK biomedical PhD trainingConclusionsReferencesDoctoral education in Norway and inter-institutional collaboration within doctoral education: A case studyWestern Norway Graduate School of Educational Research IIWNGER II and the “silent revolution” of doctoral education in NorwayMethodPreliminary findingsDiscussionNotesReferencesPaving the way for healthy and empowering working environments: A joint action of institutes, early career researchers (ECRsDoctoral training and career development services: the current state of the artBottom-up initiatives to shape and strengthen both doctoral training and career development servicesSustainable implementation of doctoral training and career development services through long-term collaborative actionsThe integrative modelConclusionNotesReferencesIII Doctoral researchers’ perspectivesProfessionalising doctoral educationProfessionalisation of structuresStructured doctoral programmesThe establishment of doctoral schoolsProfessionalisation of staffManagement of doctoral schoolsSupervisionSpecialised supportConclusion and outlook for the futureReferencesSupporting supervisors in promoting doctoral researchers’ mental health and wellbeingA doctoral project-for-lifeFive domains of mental health challengesThe functional domainThe enculturation domainThe critical thinking domainThe emancipation domainThe relationship domainTransforming conflict as enabling mental healthAwarenessConclusionReferencesPhD candidates as informal caregivers in the NetherlandsStudy designOnline questionnaireSemi-structured interviewsData collectionData analysis methodsQuestionnaireInterviewsResultsPrevalence of informal careCaregiving activitiesWork strategies: combination PhD project and informal care activitiesRole of supervisorImpact informal care on mental healthMental health: regression results from surveyMental health: results from interviewsImpact of informal care on doctoral progress and retentionPhD progressIntentions to quit doctoral educationDiscussionSummary of the resultsComparison of the results to previous studies and theoriesConclusions and implicationsMain conclusions offering new scientific knowledgeImplications for practiceReferencesWhat makes English flow and why?: Understanding the cultural difficulties facing novice postgraduate second-language writerAnd there’s the rub!Back to basics: what makes English tick?Rhetorical heritageWriter-responsibilityLow contextLinearityCaveatConclusionReferencesDoctoral students as early career university teachers: What hinders and what helps them to embrace the essentials of good teBarriers to and catalysts of the successful completion of ED coursesThe design of the courseMethodsResults and discussionFactors influencing transfer from ED courses: barriersFacilitating transfer of knowledge and skills from courses: the SOTL approachConclusionReferencesNetworks as learning environments for doctoral educationNetworked doctoral education?Story one: The Thesis Whisperer – seeking advice from the crowdIn the comments section, everyone can hear you screamStory two: mobility, connection and the DoctoralWriting blogBlogging and connectionFuture connections in the mobile, digital academyStory three: connectivity and contemporary doctoral writing practicesWriting in the networkConclusion: the future of doctoral education (re)imagined with connectivist thinkingReferencesIV Doctoral supervisors’ perspectivesWhat influences how we supervise?Discipline-specific focus group sessionsProposed model of influences on doctoral supervisionExperience: own and previous supervisionsExpectations, regulations and requirementsTraining and supervisor developmentDiscipline expectationsIndividual cultures and preferencesConclusion and implicationsReferencesTowards a framework for the recognition of good supervisory practiceThe case for recognitionThe background to recognitionThe development of a frameworkThe framework for good supervisory practiceRecruitment and selectionTypical examplesRelationships with candidatesTypical examplesRelationships with co-supervisorsTypical examplesSupporting candidates’ research projectsTypical examplesEncouraging candidates to write and giving appropriate feedbackTypical examplesSupporting candidates’ personal, professional, and career developmentTypical examplesSupporting progress and monitoring progressionTypical examplesSupporting candidates through completion and final examinationTypical examplesSupporting candidates to disseminate their researchTypical examplesReflecting upon and enhancing practiceTypical examplesThe uses of the frameworkConclusionsReferencesIntegration of doctoral supervisor courses in the research culture: A socio-cultural approachIntegration of doctoral supervisor courses in the research environmentAspects of supervisor courses going localA socio-cultural approach to educational developmentThe risk of narrow experiences and conversationsBalancing supervisor navigation and survival with academic system criticismThe ever-present need to problematise projectification in STEM doctoral studiesConclusion and implicationsReferencesAction learning as means for supervisor developmentResearch on peer mentoring and action learningEmpirical context and methodsAnalytical frameworkFindingsConcluding discussionNotesReferencesDoctoral examiners’ judgements: Do examiners agree on doctoral attributes and how important are professional and personal characteristics?LiteratureHow did I undertake this study?ResultsAttributes sought by doctoral examinersTypology of attributesOriginalityPublishabilityResearch competenceIntellectual rigourDiscussionConclusionReferencesV Ethics and accountabilitySpecialist courses in research ethics: More important now than they used to be?The role of research ethics as an academic disciplineChanging research practices and breakdowns of moral habitusMaintaining the moral habitus of the professionConcluding discussionReferencesResearch integrity training for early career researchersCountry selection and methodologyThe NetherlandsPolandData collectionThe Netherlands and Poland: what does RI training for doctoral candidates look like?The NetherlandsDefinition of research integrityTraining of doctoral candidates in the Netherlands on research integrityPolandThe definition of research integrityTraining on research integrity for doctoral candidates in Polish universitiesDiscussion and outlookNotesReferencesSupporting students to complete their doctorateCase study contextMacro-level factors on completionsMeso-level factors on completionInstitutional factorsDepartmental factorsElements promoting a vibrant graduate research cultureResearch education coordinatorsMicro-level factors – supervision and peer supportSupervisionPeersConclusions and implicationsReferences
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