Japan’s Evolving Security Policy: Militarisation within a Pacifist Tradition

Japan’s evolving security policyDebates regarding Japan’s foreign and security policyCentral argument of the bookThe argumentSignificance of the bookAnalytical frameworkCase selectionThe arms trade ban policyParticipation in UNPKOsThe SDF’s expanded military role within the Japan–US frameworkMeasuring ideational factorsMethodologyContents of the bookNotesUnpacking the puzzleNorms, ideas, and state policy: A theoretical frameworkIntroductionAnalytical framework: ConstructivismInterpretations and approaches to norms: The role of variablesPolitical parties as intervening variablesThe domestic and international norm nexusPolicy shift or path dependence?NotesKey concepts: Opposing ideas and domestic and international norms in JapanIntroductionJapan’s norms and ideas in the security fieldJapan’s domestic norm of non-use of forceApproaches to Japan’s security: The ‘normal state’ idea groupPolitical parties constituting the ‘normal state’ idea groupApproaches to Japan’s security: The anti-militarist idea groupParties constituting the anti-militarist groupThe international norm of contributing to global peaceSummaryNotesJapan’s arms trade ban policyThe arms trade ban policy during the Cold War: A Shared norm, different ideasIntroductionThe ‘normal state’ idea and the Three PrinciplesAnnouncement of the Three Principles by the Sato governmentSecond announcement of the Three Principles by the Miki governmentHolding up the Three PrinciplesInfluence of anti-militarist ideasConclusionNotesRelaxing the arms trade ban policy in the post-Cold War period: The influence of the international trendsIntroductionRelaxing the arms trade ban policyTowards relaxation: The declining defence technological baseInternational trendsThe Japanese caseDecline in the anti-militarist idea and a new pathA changing international idea and its influenceConclusionNotesJapan’s peacekeeping policyThe dispatch of the Self-Defence Forces in the Cold War period: Divisive ideas in domestic politicsIntroductionJapan’s attitudes towards the UN in the early post-war periodMaking a contribution through civiliansThe anti-militarist idea and opposition to the dispatch of the SDFConclusionNotesThe Gulf War and Japan’s participation in United Nations peacekeeping operations: The internalisation of an international normIntroductionThe Gulf War: A prevailing international normDiffusion of the international normLocalising the international normThe influence of the anti-militarist ideaConclusionNotesJapan’s expanding peacekeeping roles in the post-Cold War period: Interaction between domestic and international normsIntroductionEvolving international ideas on UN peacekeeping operationsJapan’s attempts to catch up with the international standardEmphasis on peacebuilding missionsCases: East Timor, Afghanistan, Haiti, and South SudanStruggle between domestic and international norms: The 2015 Security LegislationConclusionNotesJapan’s evolving military rolesJapan’s expanding security roles in the 1990s and 2000s: The emergence of collective securityIntroductionJapan’s enlarged military roleStrengthening the SDF’s roles in the Japan–US alliance: A step towards collective securityJapan’s support in the war on terrorismJapan’s support for the Iraq WarThe diminishing anti-militarist ideaMinor differences within the ‘normal state’ idea groupUN-centred collective securityThe LDP’s US-centred collective securityConclusionNotesLegislation for Peace and Security: Regulative effects of a domestic normIntroductionIn search of permanent lawsInitial attempt by the governmentThe second attemptContent of the Security LegislationChanging international circumstances: External threatsThe domestic political landscape: Shared ideas and minor differencesDifferences within the ‘normal state’ idea groupA weakening domestic norm?ConclusionNotesConclusionIdeational change and the impact of the international normIdeational competition and Japan’s security policy in the Cold War eraDisappearance of a constraint and the effects of the international and domestic normsFuture implicationsNotesAppendix
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