The Dynamics of Opportunity in America

PrefaceIntroductionDescription of the VolumeI: Understanding Where We Are TodayII: The Labor MarketIII: Education and OpportunityIV: Politics and the Road AheadConclusionReferencesI Understanding Where We Are TodaySegregation, Race, and the Social Worlds of Rich and PoorIntroductionFour Decades of Segregation and PovertyPoverty and Privilege in Black and WhiteSegregation and the Divergence of Social WorldsInequality in Hypersegregated AmericaConclusionReferencesFederalism and Inequality in Education: What Can History Tell Us?IntroductionDevelopment of Free and Public Schools Through the Progressive EraThe Creation of Free Public School Systems, 1840–1860–1895: Expansion and ProfessionalizationThe 'Progressive' Era: Redefining Equal OpportunityExpanding the Federal Role in Education (World War II to the Space Race)The Postwar YearsEducation, the Space Race, and MeritocracyDesegregationThe Role of ESEA in DesegregationFederal Action to Desegregate K-12 Education in the SouthObstacles in the NorthAssessing the Success of DesegregationThe Challenges of Title I: The Early YearsNew Equity Issues Emerge in the 1970sNixon Seeks to Equalize ExpendituresBilingual EducationTitle IX Bars Discrimination Against WomenEducation of Children with DisabilitiesThe 1978 Reauthorization of ESEAEducation Policy and Civil Rights in the Reagan AdministrationThe Nation at Risk ReportReagan Faces Reversals: Hawkins-Stafford Bill of 1988The Era of Standards-Based ReformGeorge H. W. Bush and the Onset of ReformEnter Systemic EducationStandards-Based Reform Arrives on the Federal AgendaNo Child Left Behind: Its Trajectory Under George W. Bush and Barack ObamaBush Launches New Federal ReformsEnter Obama and DuncanThe Importance of Title IBackgroundNAEP's Relation to Title ILong-Term NAEP: Trends and InterpretationsThe 1980s and 1990s: Studying Actual Title I StudentsNAEP Score Gaps after 2000Some GeneralizationsThree Eras in the History of the Federal Role in EducationConditions for ChangeCongress as the Arena for Advocacy and CompromiseLack of Constitutional Authority as a HindranceStates and Districts Forced to Focus on New PopulationsThe Numbers GameThe Reality of DelaysImpressive Action Despite the OddsThe Federal Government's Agenda-Setting RoleThe Half-Truth About the Federal RoleFederal Action Can't Do It AloneNot a Straight EvolutionFrom Laissez-Faire to MonitoringThe Conundrum of the Federal Role in Common CoreA National Arena of Education Policy: Common CoreEquality and Quality With the Common CoreFederal Funding: A Final OverviewSome Policy SuggestionsReassessing the Federal RoleTitle I ImprovementsAdditional LegislationConclusionReferencesThe Changing Distribution of Educational Opportunities: 1993–2012IntroductionConceptions of Equity, Equal Opportunity, and AdequacyMoney and School Finance ReformsResources That MatterMeasuring Fiscal Input as Well as Real Resource Equity and AdequacyEvaluating Funding Levels and FairnessEvaluating Resource Levels and FairnessEstimating Sensitivity of Resources to Funding Across DistrictsFindingsResource ModelsRelationships Across Adequacy (Level) MeasuresConclusions and ImplicationsAppendixReferencesThe Dynamics of Opportunity in America: A Working FrameworkIntroductionWhat Is Opportunity?The ChallengeThe Framework: Gates/Gaps/GradientsGates and Gaps TogetherThe Dynamics of InequalityThe Birth LotteryBeginning SchoolGradientsWhy Is Expanding Opportunity Important?Moving ForwardReferencesII The Labor MarketWages in the United States: Trends, Explanations, and SolutionsIntroductionEmpirical Trends in Wages and Compensation in the U.S.Hourly Wage PercentilesWeekly Earnings by EducationAnnual Earnings by Wage PercentileAdding Compensation to WagesNear-Term Wage IssuesLabor's Share of National IncomeTheories of Wage FormationTheories that Assume Full EmploymentTheories That Do Not Assume Full EmploymentDiagnosis and Prescription: What's behind Wage Stagnation and Earnings Inequality and What Can Be Done to Reverse It?ConclusionReferencesThe Widening Socioeconomic Divergence in the U.S. Labor MarketIntroductionDefining Labor UnderutilizationDefining the Educational Attainment and Household Income GroupsIdentifying Labor Underutilization Problems across Education and Household Income Groups in the U.S.Unemployment Problems Among Workers Across Education and Income Groups in 2013–2014Underemployment Problems Among U.S. WorkersThe Problems of Hidden Unemployment Among Workers in 2013–2014Hidden Unemployment Rates Among WorkersLabor Underutilization Problems in the U.S. in 2013–2014Labor Underutilization Rates Among WorkersThe Findings of Logistic Probability Models to Predict Labor Underutilization among Workers in 2013–2014The Labor Underutilization Problems of the Nation's Young Adults (16–29) in 2013–2014Trends in Labor Underutilization Rates Among Adults (16 and Over) by Educational Attainment and Household Income, 1999–2000 to 2013–2014Income Problems of Underutilized Workers, 2012–2013The Three Income Inadequacy MeasuresThe Poverty Rates of Workers by Underutilization Status and Educational AttainmentPoverty/Near Poverty Problems of the UnderutilizedLow-Income Problems of Workers by Labor Underutilization and Educational AttainmentConclusionAppendicesAppendix 7A: Labor Underutilization Rates by Gender and Race-Ethnic GroupsAppendix 7B: Associations Between Educational Attainment/ Household Income by Gender and Race-Ethnic GroupsAppendix 7C: Logistic Probability Models Showing Effects of Demographics on Underutilization Rate of WorkersAppendix 7D: Estimating the Probability of a Person with Given Background Traits Being Underutilized in 2013–2014Appendix 7E: Logistic Probability Model of Labor Underutilization for Labor Force Participants Under 30ReferencesIII Education and OpportunityGates, Gaps, and Intergenerational Mobility: The Importance of an Even StartIntroduction: How Can We Make the Start More Even?What Makes a Difference Early in Life?Gates and Gaps and the Life-Cycle ModelWhat We Know about Early Influences on Health, Behavior, and Learning: A Very Brief ReviewPreschool InvestmentsThe Five Factors That Determine Early DevelopmentFamily StructureParentingEconomic Inequality: Money Matters—A LotSocial InstitutionsNeighborhoods and the Role of PlaceThe Changing Race and Ethnicity of American ChildrenUsing the Gates-Gaps Metaphor to Examine Opportunity and Mobility Early in LifeTransition 1: Prenatal and Family Birth StatusTransition 2: Life at Early Ages, Post-Birth but before Preschool (6 Months to 3–4 Years)Transition 3: Preschool and Early Childhood Education (Ages 4–6)Cumulative Gaps?SummaryPolicy Levers to Open Gates, Reduce Gaps, and Moderate Cumulative Gaps Early OnUnwanted Pregnancy at Young Ages: An Agency ProblemMoney Makes a Difference in ParentingPrenatal and Early Parenting ProgramsThe Role of the PediatricianPreschool: The Importance of QualityConclusionAppendixReferencesQuality and Equality in American Education: Systemic Problems, Systemic SolutionsAn Unequal PresentLet's Start with the ChildrenWhere Do the Schools Fit In?Signs of ProgressObservations from 60 Years of Equity Reforms: There Are No Silver BulletsLesson One: Implementation Dominates ImpactLesson Two: Piecemeal Reforms Leave Systemic Contributors UntouchedVision of a More Equitable Education SystemThe Foundation: A Quality School SystemTargeted Strategies to Reduce Inequalities: Four High-Leverage ApproachesBeyond School: Connecting Schools with Services and Institutions in the CommunityGetting From Here to There: The Problem of Change at ScaleDesigning Governmental Policy to Motivate and Support Improvement and EquityIncreasing Professional Accountability and SupportMobilizing an Engaged CitizenryConclusionRestraining the Role of Government: Focusing on the Long TermBuilding Public and Stakeholder Constituency for ImprovementLeveraging and Strengthening Professional NetworksReferencesRestoring Opportunity by Expanding ApprenticeshipIntroductionDefining Apprenticeship and Explaining Its AdvantagesPatterns and Trends of Middle-Level OccupationsTaking Education, Training, and Labor Market Interactions into AccountSkill Requirements for Workers to Reach Middle ClassTaking a Look at Other NationsThe Timing and Flexibility of Apprenticeship TrainingWhat Policies Can Encourage Firms to Adopt Apprenticeship in the U.S.?Bipartisan Initiatives and New ProposalsThe State RoleThe Federal RoleConclusionsReferencesImproving Opportunity Through Better Human Capital Investments for the Labor MarketIntroductionInvesting in Human Capital: Why Does Postsecondary Educational Attainment Lag behind for the Poor?Theory and EvidenceExplaining the Rising Attainment Gaps among Disadvantaged StudentsWhat About Earnings?Are There Other Pathways to Labor Market Success Besides College?Career and Technical EducationWork-Based LearningSectoral Training/Career Pathway ProgramsPolicy ImplicationsImproving College Completion RatesExpanding Postsecondary Options with Labor Market ValueExpanding High-Quality CTE and Work-Based LearningConclusionReferencesIV Politics and the Road AheadPolitical and Policy Responses to Problems of Inequality and Opportunity: Past, Present, and FutureIntroductionThe Legacy of the PastThe Present Era of Rising InequalityPublic Beliefs About Inequality and OpportunityElite Discourses of Inequality and OpportunityThe Future Politics of Inequality and OpportunityConclusionAppendixReferencesHow Will We Know? The Case for Opportunity IndicatorsIntroductionAll-American: Equal Opportunity as Egalitarian IndividualismOpportunity Equals Intergenerational Relative MobilityMobility: The Current PictureA Very Brief History of Social IndicatorsTheory: Conceptual IssuesIndicators and the U.K.'s Social Mobility StrategyIndicators and the Colorado Opportunity ProjectOpportunity Indicators for the U.S.: Four ProposalsInvest in Data for OpportunitySet a Long-Term Goal for Intergenerational MobilityDevelop a 'Dashboard' of Annual Opportunity IndicatorsCreate a Federal Office of OpportunityConclusionReferencesEpilogue: Can Capitalists Reform Themselves?Appendix: Members of the Opportunity in America Advisory Panel
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