Electoral Participation in Newly Consolidated Democracies: Turnout in Africa, Latin America, East As

AcknowledgementsPurpose of the bookNew democraciesThe plan of the bookNotesWhy citizens voteContending theories – general features of the theories of voter turnoutTheories of electoral participationSocio-demographic modelDemographics factors6GenderReligionEthnicity or racePlace of residenceSocioeconomic factorsMobilisation modelParty identificationCivil society organisationsClientelismPolitical culture/political-psychological model“Civic cultures” and political participationPolitical interest and political knowledgePolitical efficacyPolitical and social trustThe electoral or political-institutional contextA survey of institutional explanationsInstitutional factorsElectoral systemCompulsory votingConcurrent electionsThe closeness of the electionDemocratic theories, founding elections, social capital, and electoral turnout in new democraciesElections and the democratisation process: how central is election to democracy?Social capital theoryTheories of electoral participation: are newly consolidated democracies different?Electoral participation in Africa, Latin America, East Asia, and post-communist European countriesAlternative explanations of voting in new democraciesSummary and conclusionNotesThe comparative frameworkComparative framework and parameters for comparing the regionsSelection of casesMethodological challenges associated with studies of voting behaviourData, measurement, and estimation strategyDataConceptualisation and operationalisation of variables19Measuring electoral participation: dependent variableMeasuring independent variablesSocio-demographic variablesDemographic variablesSocioeconomic variablesMobilisation variablesPolitical-psychological variablesAlternatives variablesPolitical and institutional variablesEmpirical and estimation strategyNotesSocio-demographics and the voteSocio-demographics determinants of the vote: bivariate relationshipsSocio-demographics determinants of the vote: multivariate analysisConclusionNotesMobilisation and the voteParty identification in new democracies: levels and trendsLevels of party identification in new democraciesParty identification, associational membership, clientelism, and voting: bivariate relationshipsGeneral overview of the multivariate resultsRe-considering the impact of clientelism and voting in new democraciesThe scope of clientelism in new democraciesThe correlates of clientelism and vote choiceConclusionNotesPolitical-psychological variables and the voteUnderlying political-psychological orientations in new democraciesPolitical-psychological variables and the vote: bivariate relationshipPolitical-psychological variables and the vote: overview of the multivariate resultsConclusionNotesAlternative explanations and the voteAssessing the scale of corruption: any regional differences?Economic concerns and voters’ retrospective evaluationsAuthoritarian practices and tendencies in new democraciesCorruption, authoritarianism, economy, and the voteCorruption, authoritarianism, economy, and the vote – bivariate relationshipsThe vote choice: a multivariate modelConclusionNotesThe electoral context and the voteThe vote: why combine the individual and contextual approach?Voter turnout trends in new democraciesNew democracies and their political-institutional characteristicsThe electoral context and the vote: bivariate relationshipsIndividual and political-institutional determinants and the vote: a multivariate modelConclusionNotesA comparative overviewElectoral participation in new democracies: are the models consistent?How much consistency do we find across the four regions?Socio-demographic variablesMobilisation variablesPolitical-psychological variablesAlternative variablesPolitical-institutional variablesDo established models work equally well across all regions?Which explanatory variables are most “consistently effective”NotesLimitation and practical implications of the main findingsStudying electoral participation in new democracies and beyond: some directions for future research
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