Appendix 7B: Associations Between Educational Attainment/ Household Income by Gender and Race-Ethnic Groups

Findings on the unemployment rates of workers have focused on the links between educational attainment/household income and unemployment status for all workers combined. We also looked at the associations between educational attainment/ household income and unemployment status to see whether they prevailed among both gender groups and across major race-ethnic groups. We estimated unemployment rates of workers in seven selected educational attainment/household income groups by gender and for Black, Hispanic, and White non-Hispanic workers. Key findings are displayed in Table 7B.1.

For men and women, the unemployment rate patterns were very similar. Both male and female workers with limited formal schooling and low incomes faced extremely high unemployment rates ranging from 21 to 24 %, while those with a high school diploma and below average incomes ($20,000–40,000) encountered unemployment rates between 8 and 10 %, and those with a bachelor's or higher degree and incomes above $100,000 experienced unemployment rates of 2 %.

Table 7B.1 Unemployment rates of workers by gender and race-ethnic group in selected educational attainment and family income groups, 2013–2014 (in %)

Educational/income group

(A)

Men

(B)

Women

(C)

Black

(D)

Hispanic

(E) White not Hispanic

H.S. Dropout, <$20,000

21.2

24.5

38.2

15.7

25.8

H.S. graduate, <$20,000

21.5

18.4

26.9

16.2

18.2

H.S. graduate, $20,000–$40,000

10.4

8.3

12.8

9.1

8.5

13–15 Years, $40,000–$60,000

6.3

5.9

8.2

6.2

5.5

Associate degree,

$60,000–$75,000

3.7

3.4

4.9

3.9

3.2

Bachelor's degree,

$100,000–$150,000

2.3

2.3

3.5

1.3

2.1

Master's or higher degree,

$150,000 plus

1.2

1.7

2.1

1.3

1.4

All

7.0

6.6

12.3

8.3

5.5

Source: Monthly CPS household surveys, public use files, 2013 and 2014, tabulations by authors

In the aggregate, unemployment rates across these three major race-ethnic groups varied from a low of 5.5 % among White non-Hispanics to a high of 12.3 % among Black non-Hispanics. In each race-ethnic group, however, the unemployment rates of workers were strongly linked to their educational attainment and household incomes. Among low-income high school dropouts and high school graduates with no college, unemployment rates varied from 16 to 38 %. They fell steadily and steeply with additional education and income for each race-ethnic group, falling to 6–8 % for those with some college and low-middle incomes to lows of 1–2 % for affluent workers with a master's or higher degree. These gaps in unemployment rates across workers by schooling/household income were substantial for each raceethnic group.

 
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