Fingerprints:Analysis and Understanding the Science


I: Fingerprint AnalysisThe History of FingerprintsOutline of the History of FingerprintsEarly Cases Resulting in the Acceptance of FingerprintsEarly Nonsystematic Methods of IdentificationStudy QuestionsSystematic Methods of IdentificationBertillonageFingerprintsDefinitions Associated with FingerprintsFingerprint Patterns and Ridge CharacteristicsMore Fingerprint DefinitionsStudy QuestionsFingerprint Pattern Types and Associated TerminologyLoop PatternLoop Ridge CountingRadial and Ulnar LoopsOther Issues Pertaining to LoopsPlain Arch and Tented Arch PatternsThe Plain ArchThe Whorl PatternPlain WhorlCentral Pocket Loop WhorlDouble Loop WhorlAccidental WhorlRidge Tracing and Counting Whorl PatternsThe Palm PrintStudy QuestionsHenry with FBI ExtensionRidge Count ConversionConversion Chart for Ridge CountsReferencingFiling SequenceNCIC Classification SystemIAFISOther Fingerprint Systems (Manual Methods or Systems)Study QuestionsII: Development, Identification, and Presentation of FingerprintsKnown/Direct/Inked Fingerprints: Processing Techniques for Unknown/Latent FingerprintsKnown FingerprintsManual MethodUnknown Fingerprints (Commonly Referred to as Latent Prints)Conditions Affecting Latent PrintsThe Crime Scene Search and Fingerprint DevelopmentFingerprint Development Techniques (see Appendix A)Powder TechniquesChemical TechniquesFluorescent PowdersCyanoacrylate EsterFuming or Tenting MethodCAE Wand MethodIodine FumingFuming GunFuming CabinetNinhydrin MethodDFO (1,8-Diazafluoren-9-one)/PD (Physical Developer),2-Indanedione ReagentMBDNile Red Dye StainOil Red O (ORO)R.A.M. Dye Stain—Rhodamine, Ardox, and MBDRhodamineArdrox Dye Stain—Alcoholic PremixArdrox Dye Stain—Aqueous PremixBasic Yellow 40 Dye StainCrystal Violet (Gentian Violet)Sticky Side Powder®Analogs That React with BloodCoomassie BlueSudan BlackBlue StarFluoresceinFingerprint Comparison and IdentificationStudy QuestionsCourt Preparation and PresentationPreparation of the ExhibitCourtroom EtiquetteQualifying the Expert WitnessCourtroom TestimonyPresentation of the ExhibitThe historic case that allowed fingerprint evidence in the courtroom (People v. Jennings, 1911)ReviewChallenges to the Science of FingerprintsFederal Rules of Evidence Rule 702Study QuestionsAppendix A: Techniques/DevelopersAppendix B:Protocol for Preliminary ExaminationExpert Fingerprint Testimony—Preliminary ExaminationExpert Fingerprint Testimony—Jury TrialAppendix C:Fingerprint Examination ReportBibliographyGlossary