Other Fingerprint Systems (Manual Methods or Systems)

  • 1. The single finger system, which is also known as the Battley system, was developed by Chief Inspector Henry Battley of the New York State fingerprint bureau.
  • 2. The single hand system was patterned after a system developed by Anita Field of the Los Angeles Police department.
  • 3. San Francisco Police Department Five Finger system.

It should also be noted that a variety of other systems have been developed and implemented throughout the world. However, with the advent of AFIS or IAFIS, many of the manual systems that have been developed are no longer being used.

The Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) is a computerized designation of fingerprint patterns for searching within the database. Designation using this system is the least complicated method. This method is based on pattern recognition. There are five possible designations that may be used for classification purposes: A, W, R, L, S.

  • • A = Arch or tented arch patterns
  • • W = Any type of whorl (plain, double loop, central pocket, accidental)
  • • R = Right slanted loop (for purposes of AFIS, it does not matter if the loop is an ulnar or radial loop, only that the flow is to the right).
  • • L = Left slanted loop (for purposes of AFIS, it do not matter if the loop is an ulnar or radial loop, only that the flow is to the left). As a reminder, to determine the line of flow, begin at the core and follow the ridges away from the core to determine the flow of the pattern.
  • • S = Scar (this designation is where a pattern cannot be determined or the damage to the pattern is severe).
  • • X = Amputated or missing finger.

Study Questions

  • 1. What is the purpose of the fingerprint classification system?
  • 2. What do we mean by “blocking” the fingerprint card?
  • 3. How is the primary obtained and determined?
  • 4. Why was it necessary to add extensions to the Henry system?
  • 5. What is done when a finger or fingers are bandaged?
  • 6. In determining the major classification, why is it so important to count or view the left thumb first?
  • 7. How is the secondary determined?
  • 8. What is the key?
  • 9. Explain the small letter group in the subsecondary.
  • 10. What is the NCIC?
  • 11. Describe the NCIC system giving appropriate symbols.
  • 12. How many fingerprint types are there in the IAFIS system?
  • 13. Name the fingerprint types in IAFIS.
  • 14. What is the NCIC designation of a missing finger?
  • 15. What is the NCIC designation of a scarred finger?
  • 16. What do we do when both hands are amputated?
  • 17. In the NCIC system, how is a radial loop indicated?
  • 18. How would an accidental whorl be indicated in the NCIC system?

Part II

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