Affective pedagogy may be designed specifically by the instructor to address particular types of knowing. In addition, classroom cultures can be examined through theories of effective teaching called care pedagogy, teacher immediacy, and pedagogical typology, and the physical classroom structure called proxemics.

Other approaches to affective pedagogy have come from student learning styles and have focused on how the student can create his or her own learning method.

Contemporary Educational Theories

This section provides curriculum development theories that allow the reader to understand where various forms of curricula originate. Some curriculum models make affective pedagogy easier to apply, and there are examples of how they come together. In other cases, a certain curriculum philosophy would not be used to build affective teaching methods. Having educational theories as a landscape allows the reader to determine how to use them in more critical and intentional ways, especially when looking to bring in affective methods.

Bertrand's (2003) work on contemporary education theories provides a comprehensive discussion of what American educators have used as the foundation for building curricula. There are obviously other ways to categorize our educational history, and we will explore some of these as well. However, using Bertrand's categorization, the first trend for American educators originated from the desire to teach and create teaching theories around solid pillars of knowledge called academic theories.

Academic Theories

The role of the teacher involves the dissemination of content around wellknown topics such as liberal arts, classical literature, the sciences, and mathematics. These were called the academic theories, and they were given descriptive names such as classical, generalist, functionalist, traditionalist, and pragmatist. In the academic theories, each student is tasked with complying with competency-based education. There is no room for questioning the norms of social standards in these theories. The process is highly prescriptive and cognitive without any flexibility in approach because the teacher has the expertise and the content is archetypal and transcends time, leaving students to be more passive and simply hear and get it.

There are some variances within the global domain of academic theories. These variations, or subcategories, still are in alignment with the premise of what an academic theory is—to pass on to the next generation key and everlasting principles. The first subcategory is classical theories, which asks the student to hear classical content that is void of current culture or changes within the current social fabric. In nursing, an example might be the belief that nurses should show patients a conservative outer look—no visible tattoos, minimal ear piercing, and no facial piercing. In an age where these classical principles may not hold up, we may face the potential need to re-think such principles. However, it wasn't long ago that these classical messages in nursing were that a nurse should wear a white uniform, white shoes, a nurse's cap, and a nurse's pin. Where did these classical messages go? It is an interesting question to ask.

A second subcategory of academic theories as posited by Bertrand (2003) is called the generalist theories. In this domain, the instructors stress a certain way of thinking through problems and focus on our logical minds creating rational solutions to complex issues. It also involves the critical and open mind that does not have a purely biased preconception of what is occurring. Let us look at the nursing process as our method of integrating the genera-list theories approach. Nurses collect the data that can be objective and subjective, and then assess this to meet a logical conclusion regarding the patient's problem from a nursing perspective. The nurses give it a diagnosis that is open to
nursing interventions and then intervene using these learned methods from the profession. The diagnosis is evaluated to see if the intervention(s) worked and make adjustments to have the best patient outcomes. Vinette 1.2 shows what nursing looks like within a generalist theory process.

Vignette 1.2

Data Collection:

Mr. Marks, 64 years old, was admitted 2 days ago. He was previously diagnosed with congestive heart failure, hypertension, and cardiac ischemic injury in 1990. He is currently complaining of intermittent chest pain occurring for the past week. He has allergies to sulfa drugs. In the emergency department he had an EKG, which was negative, and his troponin levels were twice normal. He recently worked on his house, building a deck. He had erythemic bed pressure spots on the buttock and scapula when he arrived to the unit. He has been in the emergency department for 12 hours.

He has a peripheral line in the right forearm that is patent with normal saline running at 40 mL/hr, with a Lasix piggyback drip running that was started 30 minutes earlier. Urine is normal now, but is very concentrated.

Vital signs on admission to the unit were BP 140/88, P 52, T 98.8, R 28, pulse-ox 90%; he is still complaining of chest pain intermittently. Potassium levels are 3.0 and he has 2+ pitting edema in the lower legs and feet. Reduced breath sounds in lower lung lobes, normal breath sounds in upper lung fields. Heart has a normal rhythm.

Medication order includes:

Nitro tabs sublingual, as needed for chest pain every 2 hours Beta blocker every day

Motrin 600 every 6 hours as needed for pain

Lasix 20 mEq in 100-cc bag, piggybacks, IV three times a day Oxygen is by cannula at 6 liters

Nursing Diagnoses:

1. Intermittent chest pain related to ineffective fluid mobilization in lungs and interstitial spaces related to cardiac insufficiency

2. Poor skin integrity related to poor circulation and stagnant positioning

Nurse Interventions:

1. Provide skin care, and move patient to right side using pillows

2. Check for good oxygenation and cannula placement

3. Hold beta blocker until pulse is up to 60 bpm and call physician

4. Call physician for potassium order and indwelling Foley as the Lasix kicks in; dis- cuss the possible use of a daily 85 mg aspirin and when to get another troponin and potassium blood level

5. Assess leg edema every 8 hours, get an accurate patient weight, and monitor every 8 hours

6. Turn the patient side to side every 2 hours or get special padding mattress, then check and treat skin every 2 hours

Nurse Evaluations:

1. Vital signs every 4 hours with weight every 8 hours

2. Intake and output monitoring

3. Skin monitoring every 2 hours

4. Ask the patient his perception of ease of breathing, pain, and skin needs

5. Recheck troponin and potassium levels

6. Discuss any changes with the physician, especially fluid retention, potassium dropping, or poor urine output

As illustrated in Vignette 1.2, a generalist theory is a useful approach in nursing to integrate the nursing process, which includes data collection, assessment, nursing interventions, evaluation, and any necessary adjustments. Most nurses have experienced the generalist theory approach and, over time, have certainly become better at this straightforward technique. However, the approach is void of relational knowledge—the subjective elements involving the patient's self-motivation or self-care deficits.

Bertrand (2003) also presents another subcategory of academic theories called functionalist theories, where there is more of an attempt at having the student show competency in his or her actions as a professional in any setting or situation in American society. Nursing has used this concept to provide the nurse with professional strategies of success, a skill set normally saved for the baccalaureate educational level of nursing. It has been called leadership or professional practice, and often provides the nurse with the principles for professional practice such as being patient centered and a patient advocate. These principles will always allow the nurse to function in a way that is acceptable in American society and are represented in Figure 1.1, which shows patient-centered care.

It is a complex issue to examine the usefulness of each subgroup of academic theories in conjunction with affective pedagogy. However, it is possible that all three of the academic theories described here could use affective methods to get the information to the student, although this would not be likely, as the theories are primarily teacheror curriculum-focused. The academic theories may serve as a mirror of your practice or may provide some understanding of teaching methods not being used when presenting affective pedagogy. As a student of educational methods, there is value in learning both.

Nurse advocacy model

Figure 1.1 Nurse advocacy model.

Modified from Koloroutis (2004).

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