Sovereignty, Civic Participation, and Constitutional Law: The People versus the Nation in Belgium

A simple sentence Towards a new interpretation of sovereignty in the Belgian ConstitutionThe national sovereignty mythTowards a different interpretationStructure of the bookBibliographyConstitutionalism in Restoration EuropeConstitutional models in post-Napoleonic Europe‘Constitutional monarchism’ as the post-1814 model? The case of GermanyProspects of constitutional monarchism and its role for European constitutionalismConclusionsBibliographyBenjamin Constant and the limits of popular sovereigntyThe first French theorist of liberal democracyConstancy in Constant’s work?Constant’s principle of popular sovereigntyAssent as sovereign powerThe political implications of popular sovereigntyBibliographyAbbé Sieyès The immanent and transcendent nationTwo conflicting paradigmsTranscendent nation: The project of a constitutional juryConclusionBibliographyThe liberal and Catholic origins of the Belgian Constitution From the opposition under the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the constitutional debates of 1830-1831The liberal opposition: between the question of legitimacy and the political thought of Benjamin ConstantThe trajectory of political Catholicism from the Brabant Revolution to the Belgian Revolution‘Unionism’, the Constitution, and the emergence of a new political landscapeBibliographyThe Coppet Group and the political liberalism of the Belgian founding fathersThe influence of French political thoughtThe problem of the governmental form in the constitutional debates of 1830-1831The Ancients versus the ModernsPolitical equality and property as the basis of the political systemRepresentationCensus and mixed governmentCombining individual and political libertyConclusionBibliographyConstituent power in the Belgian National Congress and the 1831 Belgian ConstitutionThe meaning of constituent powerConstituent power in 1830-1831 BelgiumConceptions of constituent powerConclusionBibliography‘All powers emanate from the Nation’ People, nation, and sovereignty in the Belgian Constitution of 1831Sovereignty from below‘Emanating’ powersNation and peopleDividing powerConclusionBibliographyBelgium’s 1831 representative system Making representation national again1A modern understanding of representationA genuine representation of the nationParticipation channelsConclusionBibliographyThe monist nation and the general will Raymond Carré de Malberg on sovereigntyCarré de Malberg and the project of constitutional theory in dialogue with German state theoryConclusionBibliographyPulling the curtain on the national sovereignty myth Sovereignty and referendums in Belgian constitutional doctrineThe early Belgian era (1831-1839)The era of national consolidation and the confessional feuds (1839-1893)The call for democratic reform and the emergence of the national sovereignty doctrine (1893-1921)The post-war era (1950-1985)The contemporary' debate (the 2000s onwards)The value of sovereignty todayConclusionBibliographyLaboratories for democracy Democratic renewal in the Belgian federationFederalism and democracy in Belgium, an ambiguous relationDemocratic experimentation at the regional levelLessons for federal Belgium?ConclusionBibliographyA non-populist direct democracy for BelgiumThe unified people?The valve function of popular initiativesBeyond populism: Other reasons to be sceptical about direct democracyA viable proposal for a deeply multilingual Belgium?Practical recommendationsConclusionBibliographyDemocratic constitution-making under the Belgian Constitution Utilising its untapped potentialDemocratic constitution-making, a form of realistic idealismLearning from practiceApplying these lessons to BelgiumBibliographySovereignty without sovereignty The Belgian solutionArticle 25 in 1830-1831The newspaper debatePublic opinion and individual interestsThe national sovereignty mythIn defence of the mythConclusionBibliography
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