Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology: A Text and Reader

The Scientific MethodQualitative and Quantitative ResearchBasic and Applied ResearchSteps of the Research ProcessSummaryKeywordsDiscussion QuestionsReferencesReading and Reviewing ResearchSources of InformationIndividual and Vicarious ExperiencesMediaEvaluating Sources of InformationJournal SelectivitySources of FundingResearch or Professional Organization SponsorshipReputation of AuthorsElements of Published ResearchAbstractIntroductionLiterature ReviewResearch MethodsResultsDiscussion/ConclusionReferencesHow to Read/Take NotesSummaryKeywordsDiscussion QuestionsReferencesEthics in Criminal Justice ResearchHarm in Social Science ResearchInformed ConsentInformationComprehensionVoluntarinessThe Informed Consent ProcessInstitutional Review BoardsSome Ethical DilemmasConfidentiality and AnonymityCompensating ParticipantsPlagiarismSummaryKeywordsDiscussion QuestionsReferencesReading 3.1 Researching the Registered: Challenges and Suggestions for Researchers Studying Sex Offender PopulationsCausation, Experimental, and Quasi-Experimental DesignsCorrelation Versus CausationHypothesis Testing and the First Element of Causation—Relationships Between Two VariablesTime Order—The Second Requirement for CausationAccounting for All Other Possible Explanations—The Third Requirement for CausationThreats to Internal ValidityHistoryTesting EffectsInstrumentationStatistical RegressionMortalityMaturationDiffusion of TreatmentCompensatory Rivalry and Demoralization/ResentmentStatistical Conclusion ValidityGeneralizability and Threats to External ValiditySelection BiasReactivityTesting EffectsHistoryMultiple Treatment InterferenceThe Importance of Replication in ResearchClassical ExperimentsSolomon Four-Group Design and Factorial DesignAdditional Experimental DesignsEquivalent Groups Posttest-Only DesignQuasi-ExperimentsStrengths and Weaknesses of Quasi-Experimental DesignsSummaryKeywordsDiscussion QuestionsReferencesReading 4.1 The Methodological Struggles of Racial Profiling Research: A Causal Question That Automobile Stop Data Has Yet to AnswerReading 4.2 The Impact of Hot Spots Policing on Collective Efficacy: Findings From a Randomized Field TrialReading 4.3 Cognitive-Behavioral Programming and the Value of Failed Interventions: A Propensity Score EvaluationPre-Experimental, Longitudinal, and Cross-Sectional DesignsPre-Experimental DesignsOne-Group Before-After DesignOne- and Two-Group Posttest-Only DesignsLongitudinal DesignsTrend StudiesPanel StudiesCohort StudiesAccelerated or Intensive Longitudinal DesignsPotential Drawbacks to Longitudinal DesignsCross-Sectional DesignsApproximating Longitudinal Designs With Cross-Sectional DataSummaryKeywordsDiscussion QuestionsReferencesReading 5.1 Knowledge of the 911 Good Samaritan Law and 911-Calling Behavior of Overdose WitnessesReading 5.2 A Comparison Between Two Retrospective Alcohol Consumption Measures and the Daily Drinking Diary Method With University StudentsMeasurement, Validity, and ReliabilityFrom Concepts to MeasurementsVariablesLevels of MeasurementScales and IndexesValidity and ReliabilityMixed Methods Approaches to Address Validity and ReliabilitySummaryKeywordsDiscussion QuestionsReferencesReading 6.1 Systemic Error: Measuring Gender in Criminological ResearchReading 6.2 We Don’t Like Your Type Around Here: Regional and Residential Differences in Exposure to Online Hate Material Targeting SexualityReading 6.3 Popping the Cultural Bubble of Violence Risk Assessment ToolsReading 6.4 Fieldwork Protocol as a Safety Inventory Tool in Public PlacesMeasuring Crime: The UCR, NIBRS, and NCVSUniform Crime ReportsNational Incident-Based Reporting SystemNational Crime Victimization SurveySummaryKeywordsDiscussion QuestionsReferencesReading 7.1 Urban Crime Rates and the Changing Face of Immigration: Evidence Across Four DecadesReading 7.2 The Consequences of Identity Theft Victimization: An Examination of Emotional and Physical Health OutcomesSamplingSample BiasProbability SamplingSimple Random SamplingSystematic Random SamplingStratified Random SamplingMultistage Cluster SamplingNonprobability SamplingConvenience or Accidental SamplingPurposive SamplingQuota SamplingSnowball SamplingRevisiting Sample BiasChecking Your Data—Confidence Intervals and Confidence LevelsSample Bias and Random Assignments to GroupsFinding the Right Sample Size—Statistical PowerSummaryKeywordsDiscussion QuestionsReferencesReading 8.1 Methodology Matters: Comparing Sample Types and Data Collection Methods in a Juror Decision-Making Study on the Influence of Defendant RaceReading 8.2 The Effect of Community-Level Alarm Ownership on Burglary RatesReading 8.3 Ayúdame! Who Can Help Me?: The Help-Seeking Decisions of Battered Undocumented LatinasSurveys and InterviewsSurvey ConstructionFlow and Appearance of SurveyPretestingWays of Distributing SurveysInteracting With the RespondentsDrawbacks to In-Person SurveysComputer Assistance With Survey AdministrationTelephone SurveysTraditional Mail or Paper/PencilSpecific Types of SurveysSelf-ReportIs a Survey the Right Tool for My Study?SummaryKeywordsDiscussion QuestionsReferencesReading 9.1 The Malleability of Attitudes Toward the Police: Immediate Effects of the Viewing of Police Use of Force VideosReading 9.2 “Well, There’s a More Scientific Way to Do It!”: Factors Influencing Receptivity to Evidence-Based Practices in Police OrganizationsField ResearchRoles for Field ResearchersQualitative Field ResearchGaining Access for ResearchOrganizationsSubculturesIssues Specific to Ethnographic ResearchThe Work’s Impact on the ResearcherNote Taking for Qualitative ResearchStructured Field ObservationsValidity and Reliability of Field ResearchSummaryKeywordsDiscussion QuestionsReferencesReading 10.1 Consumption and Community: The Subcultural Contexts of Disparate Marijuana Practices in Jam Band and Hip-Hop ScenesLess Obtrusive MethodsContent AnalysisExamples of Content AnalysisSecondary Data Analysis and Official RecordsSecondary (Published) Agency Records and Primary (Raw) DataUnpublished Agency RecordsExamples of Studies Using Secondary DataAdvantages and Disadvantages of Using Secondary DataSimulationsCrime MappingSystematic Review and Meta-AnalysisSummaryKeywordsDiscussion QuestionsReferencesReading 11.1 “I Hate These Little Turds!”: Science, Entertainment, and the Enduring Popularity of Scared Straight ProgramsReading 11.2 A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of the Effects of Police Body-Worn Cameras (BWCs) on Response-to-Resistance in a Large Metropolitan Police DepartmentReading 11.3 Psychometric Properties of the UNCOPE: Screening for DSM-5 Substance Use Disorder Among a State Juvenile Justice PopulationReading 11.4 Looking Inside the Black Box of Drug Courts: A Meta-Analytic ReviewPolicy Analysis and Program EvaluationPolicy AnalysisEvaluation ResearchIssues Unique to Evaluation ResearchDesigns for Evaluation ResearchShould We Do the Evaluation?Will the Results Be Used?Finding What Works in Criminal JusticeSummaryKeywordsDiscussion QuestionsReferencesReading 12.1 The Cannabis Effect on Crime: Time-Series Analysis of Crime in Colorado and Washington StateReading 12.2 Treatment Integrity and Recidivism among Sex Offenders: The Relationship Between CPC Scores and Program EffectivenessGlossary
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