Discussion Questions

  • 1. When deciding on levels of measurement for data collection, why is it usually wise to go with the higher levels of measurement?
  • 2. Consider the concept of “recidivism.” Come up with five different ways that you could operationalize it.
  • 3. What steps can researchers take to prevent reliability problems and/or be in a position to check for reliability as they are designing a survey?


Ceccato, V. (2019). Fieldwork protocol as a safety inventory tool in public places. Criminal Justice Studies, 32(2), 165-188. https://doi.org/10.1080/09589236.2019.1601367 Costello, M., Rukus, J., & Hawdon, J. (2019). We don’t like your type around here: Regional and residential differences in exposure to online hate material targeting sexuality. Deviant Behavior, 40(3), 385-401. https://doi.org/10.1080/01639625.2018.1426266

Day, E. N., Edgren, K., & Eshleman, A. (2007). Measuring stigma toward mental illness: Development and application of the mental illness stigma scale. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(10), 2191-2219. https://doi.org/10.1111/j. 1559-1816.2007.00255.x Hartley, R. D. (Ed.). (2011). Snapshots of research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Jennings, W. G., & Reingle Gonzalez, J. M. (2019). Criminological arid criminal justice research methods. New York, NY: Wolters Kluwer.

Kelling, G. L., Pate, T, Diekman, D., & Brown, С. E. (1974). The Kansas City preventive patrol experiment. Washington, DC: The Police Foundation.

Kranzler, J. H. (2018). Statistics for the terrified. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Makarios, M., Lovins, L. B., Myer, A. J., & Latessa, E. (2019). Treatment integrity and recidivism among sex offenders: The relationship between CPC scores and program effectiveness. Corrections, 4(2), 112-125. https://doi.org/10.1080/23774657.2017.1389318

Maxfield, M. G., & Babbie, E. (2012). Basics of research methods for criminal justice and criminology (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Spohn, C., & Holleran, D. (2000). The imprisonment penalty paid by young, unemployed black and Hispanic male offenders. Criminology, 38(1), 281-306. https://doi.org/10.1111/j. 1745-9125.2000.tb00891.x

Stauss, K., Sparks, L., Thomas, J., & Grant, K. (2018). Letters to children: Findings of a program to enhance communication of incarcerated mothers and their children. Corrections, 3(4), 225-247. https://doi.org/10 .1080/23774657.2017.1381054

Steffensmeier, D., Ulmer, J., & Kramer, J. (1998). The interaction of race, gender, and age in criminal sen- tencing: The punishment cost of being young, black, and male. Criminology, 36(1), 763-797. https://doi. org/10.1111/j. 1745-9125.1998.tb01265.x

Tartaro, C., & Sedelmaier, C. (2009). A tale of two counties: The impact of pretrial detention on later court processing decisions. Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law & Society, 22(2), 203-221. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786010902975507

Unnever, J. D., Benson, M. L., & Cullen, F. T. (2008). Public support for getting tough on corporate crime: Racial and political divides. Journal of Research in Crime & Delinquency, 45(2), 163-190. https://doi. org/10.1177/0022427807313707

Weisburd, D., Wyckoff, L. A., Ready, J., Eck, J. J., Flinkle, J. C., & Gajewski, F. (2006). Does crime just move around the corner? A controlled study of spatial displacement and diffusion of crime control benefits. Criminology, 44(3), 549-592. https://doi.org/10.! 111/j. 1745-9125.2006.00057.x

Reading 6.1 Systemic Error

Sex and gender are two of the most commonly used variables in criminal justice research. Until fairly recently, they were also considered among the easiest to operationalize. As our knowledge of biology has advanced and our society has become more progressive, researchers are gradually acknowledging the need to (a) fully understand that gender and sex are two separate constructs, and (b) reconsider how we operationalize these variables. Valcore and Pfeffer (2018) note that the outdated, simplified way of collecting data on sex and gender can result in the misclassification of over a million individuals. This matter is especially important for social scientists, as people who are transgender or gender nonconforming tend to be disproportionately represented in the criminal justice system, as both victims and offenders.

< Prev   CONTENTS   Source   Next >