Marie Langer was born in Vienna in 1910 and died in Buenos Aires in 1987. Descendant of well-off textile business people of Jewish origin, she studied medicine and, later, psychoanalysis. After having participated in the Spanish Civil War, she went into exile in Buenos Aires. In this city, she participated in the foundation of the Argentine Psychoanalytical Association (APA) in 1942. Leon Grinberg was born in Buenos Aires in 1921 and died in Spain in 2007, where he had gone into exile after the coup d’etat in Argentina in 1955. Given the high percentage of Jewish psychoanalysts, in our base, their “Argentine” origin, as the case of Langer, can be questioned. Furthermore, most of Grinberg’s career was conducted in Europe. But it should be considered that their affiliation to an Argentine psychoanalytical school is a good enough reason to classify them as part of the cultural production of the South American country; As we shall see below with regard to certain types of books, “cultural hybridism” (Hannerz 1997) only poses problems of classification if identity (especially national origin) is understood as an essence or a legal status. Immigration, diasporas, exiles, and brain drain are at the centre of Argentine cultural history.

In this disciplinary field, books by contemporary authors of international reputation, such as Silvia Bleichmar, have also been published. Her book Paradoxes de la sexualite masculine was published by PUF in 2010, and was translated by Elisabeth Lagache and Myriam Leibo- vici. The singularity of a deeply rooted psychoanalysis in Argentina also sparked interest in its history, as was shown by the publication of Prometbee brule encore: une bistoire de la psycbanalyse en Argentine: 1900-1960 by Gilda Sabsay Foks (Sainte-Colombe-sur-Gand; La Rumeur libre publishing house, 2014, translated by Nathalie Greff- Santamaria) and Histoire de la psycbanalyse en Argentine: une reussite singuliere by Mariano Plotkin, edited by Campagne Premiere (Societe de Psycbanalyse Freudienne) in 2010, and translated by Anne-Cecile Druet. Another area of psychology for which Argentina is recognized is social psychology, especially for the early work by Enrique Pichon- Riviere (1907-1977), the author of two books that were launched by the Eres (Ramonville-St-Agne) publisher in 2004: Le processus groupal and Tbeorie du lien; suivi de Le processus de creation.

230 Transnational Perspectives Feminism

Finally, we believe that it is important to draw attention to a series of books that are likely to indicate a future subsystem of topics in which the Argentine intellectual and academic production starts to be strongly recognized worldwide. We refer to feminism, a political-intellectual movement of singular dynamism in the South American country, and which, in the series, is represented by means of Pionnieres et scandale- uses: I’histoire au feminin by Clara Obligado (Paris, J.-C. Lattes, 2008, translated by Dominique Lepreux) and L’oedipe noir: des nourrices et des meres by Rita Segato (Payot and Rivages 2014, translated by Lea Gauthier).13

Hybrid Books and Translations Without Translators

In the study of translation flows analysed in this chapter, the national origin of the authors, and the language, place, and time of the original edition and its subsequent translation are intertwined. The foreseeable order of the French authors translated in Argentina and of the Argentines translated in France is affected by the books in which such features are intertwined, inverted, and mixed.

This group includes, first of all, the texts of Argentine authors published in France which are, in certain cases, launched in a subsequent Spanish version. That is to say, studies carried out in the framework of French academic institutions; usually PhD dissertations. Although we did not include this sort of work in our database, here are some examples that we were able to identify. In the case of sociologists, we have found Reinventer le marche? Les clubs de troc face a la crise en Argentine by Mariana Luzzi (L’Harmattan, 2004); A quoi sert un economiste: enquete sur les nouvelles technologies de gouvernement by Mariana Heredia (La Decouverte, 2014) and La securite privee en Argentine: en- tre surveillance et marche by Federico Lorenc Valcarce (Karthala, 2011). Gabriel Entin, a specialist in intellectual history and political philosophy, is the co-editor (along with Thibaud Clement, Alejandro Gomez, and Federica Morelli) of LAtlantique revolutionnaire. Une perspective ibero-americaine (Les Perseides 2013). Like the historian Pablo Ortem- berg, whose thesis, Rituels du pouvoir d Lima: De la monarchie a la Republique (1735-1828) (Editions de l’EHESS, 2012), was also published. Heredia, Luzzi, Entin, and Ortemberg are holders of master’s and PhD degrees from EHESS, whereas Lorenc Valcarce, from Univer- site de Paris 1 - Sorbonne.14 The absence of translators in these French publications is clear. The above-mentioned authors are 40-50 years old, which means that their graduate training in France is relatively recent, possibly towards the end of the 1990s and beginning of the 2000s. This subset may be potentially wider, including books such as Lacan (Freud)

Levi-Strauss. Chronique d’une rencontre ratee by Carina Basualdo (Rosario 1969 - Paris 2017). Anthropologist at the National University of Rosario (1993) and PhD in clinical psychology from Universite de Paris VII (Denis Diderot, 2003), the book, edited by Le bord de L’eau in 2011, was a version of her French thesis.

This part requires a complex interpretation. As the books published in France do not reflect a previous edition in Argentina, the traces of this type of material are not clear-cut. In some cases, a different version of the same book was adapted for a subsequent Spanish edition. For example, this is the case of Cuando los economistas alcanzaron el poder by Mariana Fleredia, published by Siglo XXI Argentina one year after the version of her thesis was published in La Decouverte, or Lacan (Freud) Levi-Strauss: Cronica de un encuentro fallido by Carina Basualdo, edited five years after the French version, in Mexico by Epeele, the publishing house of Ecole Lacanienne de Psychanalyse (translated by Manuel Hernandez). Argentine author, French study, subsequent translation into Spanish, and edition in a market that may not be the Argentine one - cases of hybrid features in both senses of the symbolic exchange flow. This group would later cover works by Julio Premat (Universite Paris 8),15 Juan Carlos Garavaglia (EHESS), and many other Argentine researchers, professors, or professionals that work or worked in French institutions.16 The French books of Argentinean individuals trained and based in France would most likely constitute a range wider than that of the translations of works originally published in Argentina.

Let us apply a reverse reflection: How many books of French SHS authors were first or only published in Argentina? In quantitative terms, the number would be very low in comparison with the 1,660 translations of French books. However, as will be seen, their significance is highly relevant. Their properties are different in relation to the set that has just been described. There is no doubt that Argentina is a pole of great relevance in the translation of books by French authors. Nonetheless, when considering Spanish as a language, the historic competition among the strong marketplaces of that linguistic space cannot be avoided: Madrid-Barcelona; Buenos Aires, and Mexico City. Here are some examples. The first one is prior to the period covered in this chapter and was analysed in a previous work, which helps retrieve genetic explanations. Between 1969 and 1971, philosopher and sociologist Jose Sazbon directed a series named Problemas del Estructuralismo (Problems of Structuralism) in the Nueva Vision publishing house. It was a remarkable series of twelve volumes with texts written by the most well- known representatives of this paradigm, covering all SHS disciplines. Out of the twelve volumes, only one was the translation of a book: The Structural Study of Myth and Totemism by Edmund Leach (London, Tavistock, 1967). The rest of the volumes gathered articles from the most prestigious journals in the academic and intellectual world in the 1960s:

L’Homme, Linguistics, Le Temps Modernes, American Anthropologist, Aut-Aut, Annales, etc. The explanation pointed out that neither Nueva Vision nor any other Argentine or Spanish publisher could compete in those years with the prestige of Arnaldo Orfila Reynal, director of, first, Fondo de Cultura Economica and, then, Siglo XXI - Mexican publishing houses where most of the works by Levi-Strauss, Lacan, Barthes, etc. were published (Sora 2017; Sora and Novello 2018). This historical study clarified our experience as passeurs: from 2014, Gustavo Sora directs with Diego Garcia the Entreculturas book series in the National University of Villa Maria Press, in the province of Cordoba. It was there that books by French authors that did not exist in France were published. For example, Sociologia de la internacionalizacion by Yves Dezalay and Bryant Garth, or Los intelectuales: profesionalizacion, politizacion, internacionalizacion by Gisele Sapiro. But the first two are, like the books of the Sazbon series, a compilation of articles. This helped intellectual innovation, by publishing leading authors in the international contemporary academic sphere but still scarcely known in the Latin American context, without the need to pay translation rights. At the beginning, in fact, the translations were made for nothing by collaborators of our research team. As the series began gaining prestige, the publishing house increased its investment and professionalization: paying professional translators, buying the rights of the next titles originally published in France.

It can be said, as a hypothesis, that contemporary academic networks and mediations are expressed with greater intensity in the case of hybrid books. In the first group, the ones that stand out are agents that, in general, play very important roles as brokers of Argentine culture in France. In the second group there are the Argentines who, in their own country, take French academic production as a strategy of intellectual innovation and international-national positioning. Although with hybrid books, the forms of interest of the French scholars cannot be disregarded, there is evidence that the Argentine interest in the French academic production predominates over the inverse case.

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