Identification and Citizenship in Africa: Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writing

I: Biometric state versus documentary state: Identification technologies and citizenshipAfrican citizenships – A biometric turn?The biometric turn in African ‘emergence’Documentary state versus biometric state: legal identity without the social person?Biometrics embedded in the social and politicalNotesReferencesDocumentary government and mathematical identification: On the theoretical significance of African biometric governmentThe political virtues of documentary governmentMathematical character of biometric identificationHegemony on a digital shoe-stringNotesReferencesLegible bodies and lives: How a biometric registration campaign reinvented the Chadian populationChadian politicians and French companiesThe reinvention of a populationThe bureaucratic and biometric standardization of bodies and livesConclusionNotesReferencesTestimonies and social markers in the age of biometrics: The work of the identity control and verification commission in ChadDigitized paper barriers: Identity verifications and exclusion of immigrant learners in Johannesburg’s low-income high schoolsA mixed regime of identity verification amid the Home Affairs-ization of schoolThe production of paper barriers in the documentary verification regimeInterpersonal certification of identities: an ambivalent local adjustment to the regime of documentary verificationStrengthening of paper barriers through digital authenticationNotesReferencesA proof of innocence: Biometric registration of Malian refugees living in Burkina FasoThe republic and its double: Forgery, inequalities, and state morality in CameroonOf lives and territories unequally captured by the stateMoralities of the fake, the self, and the stateNotesReferencesGeneral amnesty for all ‘René Cailliés’! Falsifying birth certificates and reforming legal identification in Côte d’IvoireII: Identity, citizenship, and the politics of inclusion and exclusionThe French West African identity card in Senegal: The challenges and meanings of legal identification in the era of imperial citizenship (1946–1960)A kipande for Ugandans? The aborted 1947 ‘identity card for Africans’Papers to ward off the threat: Identity cards, documentary uncertainty, and genocide in RwandaCivil war, ‘ethnic obsession,’ and fear of falsification (1990-1994)Documentary uncertainty and identity verification during the genocide (April-July 1994)ConclusionNotesReferencesRwanda: Identity papers under Belgian colonial occupationKenya’s ethnic Somalis and access to identity papers: Citizenship and nation-building in north-east KenyaImproved access to identity documentsPost-2008 crisis peacebuilding, constitutional engineering, and access to identity documentsHow Nubians and the Makonde have recently benefited from certain aspects of the democratization processThe continuing marginalization of Kenya’s ethnic SomalisThe Shifta War and the neocolonial construction of the Kenyan state in its peripheriesThe globalized state and the figure o f the Sotnali refugeeThe Kenyan nation state and the figure of the Somali terroristConclusionNotesReferencesBureaucracy and the politics of identification in Nigeria: Issuing certificates of indigene and investigating citizens’ ancestral originsSocial demand and routinization of the production of certificatesThe bureaucratization ofproceduresIssuing certificates in situation of crisisNotesReferences‘Hands off my citizenship!’ Biometrics and its politics in MauritaniaBiometrics as ‘techno-politics’Biometric enrolment in practiceContesting the new registration procedures‘Hands off my citizenship!’ and the fight against the ‘biometric genocide’Negotiating biometricsConclusionNotesReferencesWhat state is there for those ‘without paper or pencil’? A case study of women and identification in North CameroonThe identity of the disposable or fixed-term citizenIdentification, an ordeal of proletarianizationThe state and the paper barrierNotesReferencesIII: Bureaucratic writing of the self: Political subjectivities and the social production of papersDisputing parenthood at the civil registry in Côte d’Ivoire in the 1960sA civil registry for the new social stateWhen and why undertake identity registration?Altered identities: registering as a social processConclusionNotesReferencesBureaucratic interpersonal knowledge: Village identity papers and the production of moral homelands in UgandaThe historical invention of the village as the cradle of someone’s ‘truth’The bureaucratic reproduction of interpersonal knowledgeConclusion: the unbearable lightness of morally unanchored individualsNotesReferencesNegotiating indigenousness: Citizenship and the struggle for papers of the Maragoli community in UgandaBureaucratizing self-defence and reframing identities: The case of Koglweogo in Burkina FasoBureaucratizing self-defenceHow to know ‘who’s who’: a logic of identification and self-registration‘Even dogs have papers’10: the struggle for recognition?NotesReferences‘Here is my evidence’: The documented path of a woman ex-combatant from Côte d’Ivoire‘Here is my evidence’: papers as symbolic vehicles of the imaginary and of self-representation in Côte d’Ivoire‘When we say ex-coinbatant, we mean ex-combatant! Women or boys—we’re all the same’: a gendered history of the Ivorian conflict‘She created this so we’d be united and so that even after the war, we’d stay united’: the role of demobilized combatant’s associationsConclusionNotesReferencesFaith papers: Transnational mobility, Christian networks, and citizenship in Morocco and SenegalPapers at the heart of evangelical churches’ establishment in Dakar and RabatBaptism cards and certificates: Christian identity papersThe letter of recommendation: renewal of faith, monitoring, and building networks in writingConclusionNotesReferencesA driver and his licence in Senegal: Professional ethos and documentary imaginaryInanimate politics: Identifying ‘lifeless and undocumented migrants’ in Guinea and MoroccoThe body and its signs as a subject of debate between police officers and diplomatsIdentifying kinship to recognize nationality: the role of families and ‘tracers’NotesThe identificatory city in sub-Saharan AfricaThe bureaucratization of societyThe bureaucratization of the imaginaryThe bureaucratization of social organizationBureaucratization and privatization of the stateIdentification ‘from below’ in AfricaNotesReferences
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