Gamification

Gamification is a process of introducing game-related elements in a non-game context to produce an enjoyable game-like experience (Werbach, 2014). In other words, gamification helps to motivate users to participate in various tasks and activities that can be otherwise non-attractive. The engagement of users is one of the prime advantages of gamification.With the addition of gamification, there comes a sense of challenge that results in new insights being realized that can be applied to non-game-related activities. The gaming aspect encourages the basic human instinct to accept challenges, overcome hurdles, and ultimately win (Aparicio,Vela, Sanchez, & Montes, 2012).

For product development, a gamification implementation should provide positive experiences for the users. In turn, these potential future users of the simulated machine will come away with a positive impression. In this way, marketing of the machine product begins even before its initial design is complete. Gamification coupled with digital platforms can be most effective by providing an interactive and social platform. The prime aspect is to motivate and engage users to achieve a goal. By allowing users to explore and utilize the product at the beginning, feedback is generated that can help the product designers target and achieve a more user-centric product. Furthermore, a user- specific game design may improve user satisfaction leading to increased productivity and end-user creativity (Werbach & Hunter, 2012).

Several approaches to implementing the concept of gamification have been proposed in the literature. In this study, however, the approach introduced by Aparicio et al. (2012) has been used. For an effective gamification process, Aparicio et al. (2012) proposed the following steps: [1]

game mechanics that can help to enhance the motivation and interest of the users.

  • • Selection of the appropriate game mechanics to achieve the objectives and facilitate user motivation — according to the self-determination theory by Ryan and Deci (2000), instilling intrinsic motivation in users is accomplished by satisfying their psychological and social needs such as autonomy, competence, and relationships. Some examples of game mechanics for autonomy include avatars, fantasy, a configurable interface, privacy, and notification control. For competence, examples include optimal challenge, positive feedback, intuitive controls, points, levels, and leader boards. For relationships, groups, messages, and connections to social networks are important.
  • • Analysis of the usefulness of the implemented gamification based on factors, such as fun, user satisfaction, service quality, and quality indicators - fun can be analyzed by examining playability metrics.This can be achieved by testing the users based on specific metrics and based on a questionnaire on the gamified process. A heuristic evaluation by experts can be used as an alternative to specific metrics. Effectiveness can be analyzed with a service quality' model that uses predefined quality parameters. Here, a comparison can be carried out between the values of the quality' parameters prior to gamification and after the implementation of gamification.

Elements of a Game

Game elements are introduced in a gamified application. A list of crucial game elements was identified by Read (2009). Key' elements include goals and obstacles (which can be explicit contexts and enforced rules), challenges (which can be limited resources or a time constraint), and fantasy (which can be avatars and a realistic three-dimensional environment). However, Deterding, Dixon, Khaled, and Nacke (2011) concluded that compiling a universal list of game elements is not possible. Other possible examples of game elements include leader boards, ranks, badges, difficulty index, levels, team play, and playfulness. In this study, the simulation model for a customizable agricultural machine, the farm tractor, offers a choice of three different engine models. The game elements introduced in this study are a goal, curiosity, challenge, fantasy, and control. Figure 7.2 illustrates the gamification algorithm employed.

Methods of Data Extraction

The quantitative information extraction procedures begin by recording the game data and analyzing it to support decision-making on a particular phenomenon (Render, 1997).The recorded game data serve as quantitative information for the study'. Interviewing operators is one of the viable methods for extracting qualitative information (O’Leary, 2017). Methods used can include factual interviewing, narrative interviewing, confrontational interviewing, and focused-group interviewing (Kvale, 2008). In this study', semi-structured

Gamification algorithm employed in this study

Figure 1.2 Gamification algorithm employed in this study.

face-to-face interviewing can be used to collect feedback from the users about the playability of the gamified application.

  • [1] Identification of the prime objective of the task or activity that needs to begamified. • Identification of one or more transversal objectives that should capture theinterest of users — based on these objectives, a system is developed using
 
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