The Ending of Tribal Wars: Configurations and Processes of Pacification

Pacification as Strategic Interaction of Indigenous Groups and State ActorsState of Research on PacificationDynamics of Warfare Between Local Groups Beyond State ControlPhenomenology of Tribal WarfareLocal GroupsWar, Violence, Feud and PeaceBasic Forms of Tribal WarfareCauses of Tribal WarfareThe Pacifying StateThe Conception of the StateThe Spatial Dimension of State DominanceEarly Colonial PeriodImperial PeriodLate Colonial Period, Sometimes Post-Colonial StatesPost-Colonial Nation StatesThe State and Its RepresentativesState ActorsMilitary Troops and Police ForcesDistrict OfficersPrivate ActorsMissionariesSettlers, Plantation Owners and Other Private ActorsState Actors and Indigenous Local Groups in the Tribal ZoneStrategies of State ActorsRepression and ProtectionRewards and BurdensJudicial InstitutionsStrategies of Tribal ActorsArmed ResistanceAllianceRetreatPacificationNotesReferencesThe Herero and Nama in German South-West Africa (1830-1910)Situation Before PacificationHereroNama and OorlamThe Wars of the Oorlam and Nama Against the Herero (1830–1858)Missionaries and TradersHerero and Nama Against Oorlam and Nama (1861–1870)The First Pacification of the Herero and Nama (1884 to 1904)The Beginning of German Colonial PowerThe Colonial State as Peacemaker Between Herero and NamaSettlers, the German Colonial Society for South-West Africa and the GovernmentThe Herero Under Colonial Rule (1895–1904)The Second Pacification: The Uprising and Destruction of the Herero and Nama (1904–1908)The Uprising and Annihilation of the HereroThe Military Campaign Against the NamaConclusionNotesReferencesThe Eastern Highlands of New Guinea (1930-1965)Situation Before PacificationDemographyLocal Groups and KinshipLocal LeadersEconomyWars and AlliancesThe Process of PacificationIndirect ContactDirect ContactPacification Before World War II: The KiapsPacification Before World War II: The MissionariesPacification After World War II: The North and South-WestPacification After World War II: The South-EastConsolidation and Routine AdministrationConsequences of PacificationConclusionNoteReferencesThe Iban in Sarawak (1840-1920)Situation Before PacificationTerritorial and Demographic ExpansionLocal Groups and KinshipLocal LeadersEconomyWars and AlliancesWars Between River GroupingsViolent Conflicts Within River GroupingsHeadhunting and WarfareIban PiracyThe Process of PacificationPrincipal Actors in the Pacification ProcessThe Government of the Brooke Rajahs and their StrategiesThe Suppression of Coastal PiracyThe Pacification of the Skrang and Saribas IbanThe Pacification of the Batang Lupar Iban (Ulu Ai)ConclusionRepressionRewardsRegulating ConflictNotesReferencesThe Lobi in French West Africa (1897-1940)Situation Before PacificationDemographyLocal Groups and KinshipLocal LeadersEconomyFeuds, Wars and AlliancesTraditional Lobi WarfareFeuds and WarMediationThe Process of PacificationFirst Phase: The Beginning of the Military Conquest (1897–1902)Armed ResistanceSecond Phase: Attempts at the Establishment of Colonial Control (1903–1914)The Difficulties of Co-opting Indigenous LeadersThe Colonial Administration and Its ShortfallsArmed ResistanceThird Phase: More Systematic Repression (1914–1930)Fourth Phase: Turning Point in French Colonial Politics (1930–1940)Effects of PacificationEconomic ChangesMigrationComposition of Local GroupsPositions of Status and PrestigeConflict SettlementConclusionNotesReferencesThe Naga in British North-East India (1830-1890)Situation Before PacificationDemographyLocal Groups and KinshipLocal LeadersEconomyWars and AlliancesThe Process of PacificationFirst Phase: Punitive Expeditions and Non-intervention (1832 until 1866)The Policy of Non-Interference (1850 until 1866)Second Phase: Enforcement of the State Monopoly of Force (1866 until 1879)Third Phase: Maintenance of Peace and OrderJudicial System: Gaonbura and Dobashi as Agents of “Indirect Rule”System of House Taxes and “Free Labour”Missionaries“Inner Line” RegulationAdvantages and Disadvantages of PacificationDurability of the Process of PacificationIncentives and Peace DividendsConclusionNotesReferencesThe Karimojong in Uganda (1898-2010)Situation Before PacificationDemographyLocal Groups and KinshipLocal LeadersEconomyWars and AlliancesThe Process of PacificationFirst Phase: British Colonial Rule (1894–1962)Failure to Establish a Local AdministrationFailed Economic IntegrationMission Activities and Creation of a School SystemReaction of the KarimojongProgress of Pacification?Second Phase: Attempts at Pacification by the Ugandan State (1962–)General Framework from 1962 to 1985State Strategies and ReactionsDevelopment Projects and the Establishing of Democratic StructuresArmament of the Karimojong and Exploitation of Superior Weapons TechnologyGeneral Framework from 1985 OnwardsStrategies and Reactions During the Museveni AdministrationIncentives by Schools and MissionariesProgress of Pacification?ConclusionNoteReferencesThe Waorani in Ecuador (1940-2000)Situation Before PacificationHistoryDemographyLocal Groups and KinshipLonghouse GroupRegional GroupsRelations Between Regional GroupsLocal LeadersEconomyWars and AlliancesWars Between Waorani GroupsWars Against Non-WaoraniThe Process of PacificationContext and ActorsThe Waorani Groups in the Mission Protectorate, 1958 Until 1973Life in the Mission Protectorate, 1958 Until 1985Reasons for PacificationPartial Return to Warfare in the 1980sConclusionNotesReferencesSuccess of PacificationVariables and TypologyType A: Eastern Highlands of New Guinea, Undup and Balau IbanType B: Iban (first Skrang and Saribas Iban, then Upper Batang Lupar Iban)Type C: Lobi, Naga, KarimojongType D: WaoraniType E: Herero, NamaPacification Without Violence and Pacification by Annihilation: Types D and EPacification Without State Violence: The WaoraniPacification as a War of Extermination: The HereroSettlers, State and Tribal GroupsPacification as a Mix of Repression and Rewards: Types A, B and CThe Three Types in ComparisonThe Pros and Cons of Pacification for Local GroupsCosts of WarBalance of Power Between Local GroupsRepression and ProtectionRewards and BurdensCourtsReturn to WarfareConclusionsNotesReferences
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