AFFECTIVE EDUCATION IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC REGIONS

Table of Contents:

There are two areas that will be covered here as a way to provide the reader with an overview of affective education in the Asia and Pacific region: history and research. The more historical section comes from the APEID (1992), which gives an overview of China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Unfortunately there are few references on SEL or affective education for this region. It would also be valuable to have an update on how Indochina is doing today, but such documents could not be found at the time of this writing. In addition, the historical documentation addresses primarily children and youth education versus higher education, but it will give some perspective on what the issues are in various countries. The second area is what type of research addressing the affective domain related to higher education is currently being conducted in the particular region of the world.

China

China's affective teaching methods are primarily absent, as this is a culture that has had its focus on cognitive learning domains with instructional methods, which have been called duck-feeding and preaching (APEID, 1992). The affective teaching interventions that were to be implemented focused on moral education programs and regulated the behaviors of primary school teachers to model social problem resolutions and the use of field visits to learn by watching real-world issues.

Indonesia

Indonesia has a constitutional statement from 1945 that provides universal education for all young people and citizens. It was based on tenets similar to the United States' early doctrine that was God focused and addressed the attributes of a good citizen, which included supporting the national spirit and love of country. There was a 1970 reform of the educational system by the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture that aimed at improving the quality of education and provided the guidelines for what a good teacher must be. In addition, the Ministry saw education as having the historical three domains of affective, cognitive, and psychomotor.

By 1980, additional changes for improved education were instituted, which were called the Active Learning and Professional Support (ALPS)
project. This process changed classrooms by focusing on more critical thinking activities, use of proxemics for stimulating learning environments, seeing the students as unique and different, and using the classroom environment as a learning tool. Teachers were given special training and had formal education plans. The teachers also had clubs and learning centers for themselves. The third domain of ALPS was to encourage the community to better understand the importance of education for their young people. It suggested there were many ways in which the community could be involved to support the overall learning process of children. Indonesia had a specific agenda for supporting the affective domain of learning and used these strategies in the late 1980s.

Malaysia

Malaysia became an independent state in 1957 and its educational goals stemmed from the need for national unity that was reinforced by the formation of the Rukunegara (the national philosophy) in 1970. The national unity priority gave a strong message to young people about what it means to be supporters of the belief in God and loyalty to the king. However, in 1983, the national syllabus, called the Civics Syllabus, was replaced by the Moral Education Syllabus in order to give students a better education in values development. The Moral Education Syllabus took the traditional 3Rs emphasis and added intellectual problem solving and sensitivity awareness to the aesthetics in the environment and the emotions of self and others. The approach incorporated both direct and indirect SEL teaching methods. The instructional methods used were:

■ Problem-solving techniques

■ Use of models and paradigms

■ Simulation games

■ Drama

■ Discussion

■ Case studies

■ Project work, and so forth (APEID, 1992, p. viii)

Teachers were trained in the use of affective pedagogy for student development that integrated traditional academic knowledge and SEL issues.

 
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