In Nepal, the primary role of the educator is to teach the young person in cognitive development and to shape the personality of the child. There is no expressed push to teach SEL or to use affective teaching methods. However, there are significant moral educational lessons that may be seen as being focused on affective personality development. So, in Nepal, whatever happens in the affective domain is an accidental result of the need to address the moral development of the child.


In contrast to what we see in Nepal, the Philippines has been concerned with affective education since the early 1900s. They use different language for SEL skills and development called character building activities (CBA) and rules of urbanity that are tied to moral ways of being with self and others. This includes such domains as self-actualization, being in community, being productive in society, national commitment and pride, and faith in God. There was one affective development model rolled out to most of the country, which was used to promote a positive attitude toward work, a vocation, and a sense of valuing a productive life and nation. They implemented this with some unique service-learning curricular changes that moved learning to the neighborhoods.

Teacher education in the Philippines has also been extensive to incorporate understanding and use of the curriculum-based assessment (CBA) model and to include parents in this teaching model. They also have used group dynamics for students as a way to process and learn from each other. As a result, Filipinos actively link affective and cognitive educational methods and content as a natural part of their educational system.


There seems to be a disconnect in Thailand between the desire to have affective teaching and actually having it. It has been overshadowed by significant cognitive achievement and expectations by parents in this culture. There is an expectation to integrate 30 moral characters into the lives of each child, but much of this is expected to come from the parents and not the schools. They would also argue that affective development is an ongoing process and it is not likely to see a special academic strategy for integration into its young people.

Higher Education in China

In China, a pivotal and unique research study by Shen, Wang, and Shen (2009) was performed. These researchers examined the use of emotional data to increase e-learning. This study involved online college students who were set up to provide a biophysical signal back to the instructor that could tell what state of emotion the student was in as lessons progressed. The most common states were engagement and confusion, but the key is that these emotions were easily seen by the instructor to guide student learning. This study found that when the instructor could adapt to the emotional state of the student, it did have a significant impact on learning. These authors also address two critical issues for online education. First, there is a significant loss for the instructor who may be using facial expressions and body language to guide students, and second, if there is a way to get emotional feedback to an instructor working online, the instructor can still make adjustments to increase the learning of the student. This shows an interesting blend between the current issues of e-learning and the value of having affective teaching methods integrated into such learning. There are certainly other issues to address with respect to the integration of affective pedagogy for e-learning, which was presented in Chapter 7.

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