Birthing Techno-Sapiens: Human-Technology Co-Evolution and the Future of Reproduction

Cyborgs and Techno-SapiensReproduction in the Technocracy: The Technocratic, Humanistic, and Holistic Paradigms of Birth and Health CareBackground: A Brief Review of Relevant LiteratureA Brief Overview of the Contents of This VolumeAcknowledgmentReferencesI From Biocultural Evolution to Human-Technology Co-EvolutionBIRTH AND THE BIG BAD WOLF: Biocultural Evolution and Human ChildbirthThe Six Little Pigs and the Big Bad Wolf: An Anthropological TaleThe Biocultural Evolution of Human Childbirth and Obligate MidwiferyThe Sociality of Birth and the Prevalence of Obligate MidwiferyThe Cultural Elaboration of Childbirth: Biomedical Hegemony and the Technocratic ModelPremodern Birthing Patterns and Why They MatterPremodern Birthing Practices Set 1: Fluids and Food, Unrestrained Movement in Labor, and Physiologic Pushing PositionsPremodern Birthing Practices Set 2: Obligate Midwifery and Continuous Labor Support vs. "Intimate Strangers"Premodern Birthing Practices Set 3: Low Intervention Birth- Long-Term Breastfeeding-Co-Sleeping Adaptive ComplexCorrectives from Evolutionary Medicine: Towards a Model of (R)Evolutionary Maternity CareThe 7th Little Pig and Human-Technology Co-Evolution: Kiri's StoryConclusion: Birthing Techno-SapiensAcknowledgmentsReferencesEGG FREEZING ACTIVISTS: Extending Reproductive Futures to Cancer Patients, Single and Minority Women, and Transgender MenIntroduction: The Global Rise of Egg FreezingEgg Freezing ActivistsCorinne—MEF for Young Cancer PatientsJulie—EEF Activism for Single Women in TechKamila—EEF as a Reproductive Choice, Including for Black WomenAndrew—TEF "Proactivism" for Transgender MenConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesTHE SPECULATIVE TURN IN IVF: Egg Freezing, Reproductive Futures, and the Financialization of FertilityIntroduction: The Speculative Turn in Contemporary IVFEquity for Cryo-EggsPrelude and Speculative FertilityFinancing FertilityConclusion: Financializing FertilityAcknowledgmentsReferencesSOCIOLOGY AS TECHNOLOGY: A Toolkit for Studying In Vitro GametogenesisIntroduction: Attempting In Vitro GametogenesisRelating Kin or Forgetting Progenitors?IVG as Making Artificial Gametes: Relating KinForgetting Progenitor Memory: IVG as a Model for Studying Primordial Germ Cells and Epigenetic ReprogrammingBenchwork in Translational TimesSociology as Technology: A Toolkit for Democratizing BiotechnologyAcknowledgmentsReferencesREPRODUCTION, SACRIFICIAL LIFE, AND THE LOGICS OF ATTRITION IN THE AFTERLIFE OF APARTHEIDIntroduction: Scenes of Cyborg LittermatesDDT Flows in LimpopoAttending to Embryos in Cape TownAn Emerging Infertility PoliticsConclusion: Logics of AttritionAcknowledgmentsReferencesMAKING BETTER BABIES? Past and Future State Fair Contests Evaluating Geneticized WorthHUMAN GERMLINE GENOME EDITING AND ITS TECH-SUMPTIONSIntroduction: CRISPR-Cas9Redesigning HumansUtilizing hGGEThe Genetic Origins of TraitsThe Assumed ConsensusInternational Regulation and EthicsPublic Opinions on hGGEConclusion: Tech-SumptionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesEVALUATING ECTOGENESIS VIA THE METAPHYSICS OF PREGNANCYWhat Is Ectogenesis?The Potential Value of EctogenesisThe Metaphysics of PregnancyRe-Evaluating EctogenesisConclusion: A Conceptual OverhaulAcknowledgmentsReferencesELECTIVE CESAREAN BIRTHS IN THE US AND THE GLOBAL CESAREAN EPIDEMIC: Causes, Solutions, and Futuristic ImplicationsIntroduction: Understanding CesareansHypothesis and ObjectivesMethodologyImmediate Risks of Cesarean Births and Poor Long-Term Health OutcomesIntergenerational and Epigenetic EffectsFuturistic Implications of Normalizing CesareansChanging Cesarean Birth PracticesAdjusting Environment and DiscourseCountries with "On-Target" RatesConcluding Remarks: Birthing Techno-SapiensAcknowledgmentsReferencesCANCEROUS CONTRACEPTIVES AND THE INCUBATION OF MONSTERS:Quechua Reproductive Etiology and Producing Necro-Techno-SapiensIntroducing Necro-Techno-SapiensCancerous ContraceptivesThe Incubation of MonstersReferencesII Imagining Techno-Holistic Reproductive FuturesWATER AS A TECHNOLOGY TO SUPPORT EMBODIED AUTONOMOUS BIRTHINGIntroduction: Water Immersion as a Health TechnologyWater Immersion in Its Current FormEvidence of Negative Side Effects of Technocratic Birthing EnvironmentsWater Immersion in Complex Pregnancy in Aotearoa New ZealandConclusion: The Future as It Needs to BeReferencesTHE BIRTH OF A NEW HUMAN BEING: The Utopian Project of the Late Soviet Waterbirth Movement and Its InheritorsIntroduction: Igor Charkovsky and the Aquaculture ProjectIgor Charkovsky and His ".Aquaculture" Project: A Brief HistoryThe "Aquaculture" Project as a Human Enhancement UtopiaSupermoms: Giving Birth to a New Kind of Human Being "Aqua-MothersTechniques of Conduct and Counter-ConductBabies-Dolphins and Charkovsky's "New Physiology" Babies-Dolphins: Nature and TechnologyThe Machinery of Utopia: The "New Physiology" of Childbirth and InfancyConclusions: Aquaculture and Techno-SapiensList of IntervieweesReferencesSAFETY, CO-REGULATION, AND POLYVAGAL THEORY: The Autonomic Nervous System as the Missing Link in Childbirth Outcomes and ExperiencesIntroduction: Pam's Stalled Labor and Lucia's SolutionPolyvagal Theory and the Autonomic Nervous SystemThe Autonomic Regulation of ChildbirthPainless—and Pleasurable?—ChildbirthSafety, the Vagus Nerve, and Optimal BirthingOxytocin and Immobilization without FearBirth TraumaThe External Environment: Fear and Safety in the Birth SettingInternal Experience: The Mental and Emotional Journey to and through BirthSocial Interaction: Co-Regulation for SafetyA Polyvagal Perspective on Pam's Stalled LaborConclusion: Back to the FutureReferencesFAMILY-CENTERED, EVIDENCE- BASED, PSYCHO-SOCIALLY SENSITIVE, AND CULTURALLY RESPECTFUL PERINATAL CARE: Still a Futuristic Dream!Introduction: Family-Centered Perinatal CareCare Should Be Based on the Best Available EvidenceFamilies Need Support for BreastfeedingWe Need Perinatal PsychologistsFamilies Need Prenatal PreparationCare Must Not Be AbusiveMidwifery Care Is BeneficialThe Future of Perinatal PracticeFamily-Centered PrinciplesCaregiver-Centered PrinciplesReferencesFLEXIBLE HELPERS: Re-Scribing Obstetric Technologies to Generate More Viable Futures for "Good" Pregnancies and BirthsMaterial Semiotic Tools: Practices and Their ValuesA Material Semiotic Analysis of Obstetric TechnologiesStep 1: Studying the Sociotechnical Relations of Midwifery CareStep 2: Unnaturalizing Pregnant, Fetal, and Birthing Bodies in Midwifery Care PracticesStep 3: Comparing Midwifery Care Values and Their EffectsConclusion: Flexible Helpers for Viable Birthing FuturesReferencesCOMING HOME: Re-Visioning Place of Birth in the 21st CenturyPrelude: Birth in the Time of COVID-19The Chapter Ahead: Back to the Past and Forward to the FutureLeaving Home: Power, Politics, and Place of Birth in the 20th CenturyComing Home: The Future Place of BirthIntelligent Life: Reflecting on the Techno- Sapiens Birthplaces of the FutureAcknowledgmentsReferencesCREATING LIFE IN STAR TREK: Future ImagineeringIntroduction: Star Trek, Technology, and HumanismImagined Technology in Familiar ContextsEthical DilemmasGenetic ManipulationRelationshipsArtificial Life—Beyond AlThe Future: Star Trek's VisionReferencesThe Overall Contributions of This BookFindings from Our Chapters and Further Developments: Human-Technology Co-Evolution in the Anthropocene EraI: From Biocultural Evolution to Human- Technology Co-EvolutionThe Racialization of ReproductionProjecting Techno-Scientific PossibilitiesII: Imagining Techno-Holistic Reproductive FuturesIntegrating Humanistic and Holistic Care into Techno-Sapiens ReproductionWhat Do Childbearers Want?How Culture Shapes Biology: ARTs and Missing GirlsTechno-Sapiens and PandemicsBirthing Techno-Sapiens during the Climate CrisisAcknowledgmentReferences