Political Thinking, Political Theory, and Civil Society

I. Political Thinking and Political TheoryII. The Link Between Political Theory and Political ThinkingIII. Socrates of the Apology and the CritoIV. The Rest of the BookNotesThe Importance of a Civil SocietyI. Civil Society: The Problem FacedThe Democratic Civil Society III. Civil Society of Mediating GroupsIV. Civil Society: The Liberal ApproachV. Liberal Civil Society: Civic NormsVI. The Civic Virtues of Toleration and Mutual RespectVII. The Market Dimension of Civil Society: Adam Smith’s DilemmaVIII. The Importance of Civil SocietyNotesI Civil Society in the Classical and Religious TraditionsPlato: Civic Virtue and the Just SocietyI IntroductionII. Plato’s “Just Society”III. Plato’s Republic: What Justice Is NotIV. The Next Question: What Is Justice?V. Democracy and InjusticeVI. Plato, the Laws, and Civil SocietyNotesAristotle’s Response to Plato: The Importance of FriendshipIII. Aristotle on Plato’s Forms and the Search for HappinessIV. The Nature of the PolisV. Constitutions: Just and UnjustVI. Democracy and Public DeliberationVII. Aristotle and Civil SocietyNotesChristian Conceptions of Civic VirtueI. IntroductionII. Introduction to Augustine: CiceroIII. St. Thomas Aquinas: Justice RestoredIV. Luther and Calvin: An IntroductionV. The Implications for Civic Virtue and Civil SocietyNotesElements of Islamic and Jewish Medieval Political ThoughtI. Introduction: Alfarabi’s LegacyII. Avicenna: The Philosopher and the LawgiverIII. Averroes: The Importance of DemocracyIV. Maimonides: The Limits of Reason and ReligionV. Conclusion: The Implications for Civil SocietyNotesII Early Modern Approaches to Civil SocietyNiccolò Machiavelli: Civic Virtue and Civil SocietyI. Historical Setting and IntroductionInnovation Through ViolenceTechniques of Power: Maintaining AppearancesIII. The Discourses and Republican FormsV. The Moral of Mandragola and Civil SocietyNotesThomas Hobbes and Modern Civil SocietyI. Historical ContextII. Hobbes’s MethodIII. Hobbes and the State of NatureIV. Hobbes’s Civil Society: The Laws of Nature and Civic VirtueV. The Role and Structure of the StateVI. The Christian CommonwealthVII. Response and RejoinderNotesBenedict Spinoza and Liberal DemocracyI. IntroductionII. Historical SettingIII. Philosophy and ReligionIV. The Social Contract of a Democratic StateV. Spinoza and Civil SocietyNotesJohn Locke, Civil Society, and the Constrained MajorityII. The Concept of Political AuthorityIII. Locke’s Limited GovernmentIV. Response and RejoinderNotesJean-Jacques Rousseau: Community and Civil SocietyI. IntroductionII. Selfishness and Self-LoveIII. The Second Discourse on the Origin of Inequality Among MenIV. Rousseau’s Threat to Civil SocietyV. Response and RejoinderNotesIII Late Modern and Contemporary Approaches to Civil SocietyImmanuel Kant: Civil Society and International OrderI. Public ReasonII. The Process of Practical ReasonIII. Kant’s Civil SocietyIV. Nature’s Secret PlanV. The New World Order: A Federation of Civil SocietiesVI. Public Reason and Civil SocietyVII. Response and RejoinderNotesG.W.F. Hegel: Civil Society and the StateI. IntroductionPhenomenology ofSpiritIII. Civil SocietyIV. The State and Civic VirtueV. Response and RejoinderNotesKarl Marx and the Economic Argument About Civil SocietyI. Marx’s Reaction to HegelII. Political Emancipation: Rights in Civil SocietyIII. Modern AlienationIV. The Economic Argument: The Sources of ExploitationV. Response and Rejoinder, Especially Adam SmithNotesJohn Stuart Mill: Civil Society as a Higher CallingI. Mill’s Perfected Civil SocietyII. Mill and Jeremy Bentham and the Principle of UtilityIII. On Liberty: The Culture of Civil SocietyIV. The Stationary Economy and Private PropertyV. On Representative GovernmentVI. Response and RejoinderNotesJohn Rawls: The Just and Fair Civil SocietyI. IntroductionII. Rawls’s Principles of Justice in A Theory of JusticeIII. Political Liberalism and Value PluralismIV. Response and RejoinderNotesThe Conservative View: Edmund Burke, Alexis de Tocqueville, and Michael OakeshottI. IntroductionII. Burke: The Purpose of Civil SocietyIII. Tocqueville and the Commitment to EqualityIV. Introduction: Oakeshott and Civil SocietyV. Response and RejoinderNotesIV Critiques of Civil SocietyThe Critique of Power in Civil Society: Friedrich Nietzsche and Michel FoucaultII. Nietzsche and the Will to PowerIII. Dionysus Versus Apollo and the Quest for a New CultureIV. The Place of MoralityV. Democracy and Civil SocietyVI. Politics of Bad ConscienceVII. Foucault’s Nietzschean CritiqueVIII. Maclntyre’s Response to the Nietzschean CritiqueNotesFeminism, Gender Equality, and Civil SocietyI. The History of Feminist ThoughtII. The Public and the PrivateIII. Perspectives on the Feminist Political ProjectIV. Feminism Beyond Gender?: The Expanding Scope of the Feminist ProjectNotesTwenty-first Century Challenges for Civil Society: Culture, Religion, and Climate ChangeI. IntroductionII. Multiculturalism and Civil SocietyIII. Civil Society and ReligionIV. Climate Change and Civil SocietyV. Civility and Global Civil SocietyNotesCivil Society, Liberal Democracy, and Racial Injustice: A Political Theory Informed by the Black Experience in AmericaI. Introduction: Civil Society and Liberal DemocracyII. The Public Sphere and Liberal DemocracyIII. Civil Society and the Public SphereIV. Political Theory and Race: Core ArgumentV. Reconstruction, Jim Crow, and MemoryVI. Frederick Douglass, Radical Injustice, and Civil SocietyVII. W.E.B Du Bois, Booker T. Washington, and MemoryVIII. Martin Luther King Jr. and the Civil Rights MovementIX. Mass Incarceration, Capitalism, and ReparationsX. Protest PoliticsXI. Response and RejoinderNotes
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