Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology

ForewordThis BookI State-of-the-Art and Discussions of Research IssuesIndustrial Ecology's First DecadeOrigins of Industrial EcologyConstructing the Field of Industrial EcologyBuilding the Tools of the Trade, 1990–2000Life-Cycle AssessmentDesign for EnvironmentMaterial Flow AnalysisSocioeconomic MetabolismInput–Output AnalysisUrbanMetabolismIndustrial SymbiosisBecoming a Scholarly FieldConferencesScholarly JournalsThe International Society for Industrial EcologyCourses and TextbooksEpilogueReferencesProspective Models of Society's Future Metabolism: What Industrial Ecology Has to ContributeIntroductionThe Great Transformation AheadScientific Response: The Interdisciplinary Systems Approach and Prospective ModelsGoal and ScopePrinciples of Prospective Models of Socioeconomic MetabolismOverview and General PrinciplesCredible, Possible, and Likely ScenariosProspective Modeling in Industrial Ecology: State of the ArtProspective Modeling with Established IE MethodsNew Approaches to Prospective Modeling in Industrial EcologyThe Relation between Prospective IE Models and MFA, LCA, and I/O AnalysisThe Relation between Prospective IE Models and Consequential LCAProspective Modeling in Industrial Ecology: Future DevelopmentFuture Applications and Model DevelopmentLinking Industrial Ecology and Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs)ConclusionReferencesLife Cycle Sustainability Assessment: What Is It and What Are Its Challenges?IntroductionDefinitions of LCSASustainabilityLCSA Definitions Adopted in PracticeMain Challenges Identified in LCSA Studies So FarConclusionsAnnex 1: Challenges Faced in the LCSA References from the Bibliometric AnalysisReferencesIndustrial Ecology and CitiesA False DawnFormative Years of IEInto the Twenty-First CenturyUrban MetabolismFuture DirectionsReferencesScholarship and Practice in Industrial Symbiosis: 1989–2014IntroductionI: Why People Sometimes Equate Industrial Symbiosis with Industrial Ecology—Froschand Gallopoulos, Kalundborg, and BeyondII: Bounding Industrial Symbiosis in Time and Space—Distinctions and DifferencesIndustrial Symbiosis: Old, New, or HiddenSingle Industry Dominated vs. Multiple Industry InvolvementIndustrial Symbiosis and Eco-industrial Parks (EIPs)Diffusion of Industrial SymbiosisUnderstanding Industrial Symbiosis in a Chinese ContextOrganizational Drivers and BarriersIII: Industrial Symbiosis in Both Scholarship and PracticeSection A: Industrial Symbiosis in ScholarshipResults and Analysis of Bibliometric StudyDiscussion of Industrial Symbiosis ResearchSection B: Industrial Symbiosis in PracticeConclusion: Industrial Symbiosis in a World of DifferenceAppendixReferencesA Socio-economic Metabolism Approach to Sustainable Development and Climate Change MitigationBackgroundA Socio-economic Metabolism FrameworkEnergyMaterialsThe Importance of Representing StocksProblem ShiftingSustainable Development and the Carbon BudgetEffective Policymaking: The Case of the Aluminium SectorReducing Resource Use in the ProductChanging the Demand for Stocks in Providing ServicesTimingThe Socio-economic Metabolism Framework and WealthReferencesStocks and Flows in the Performance EconomyIntroductionThe Circular Economy – “Loop”, “Lake” and “Performance” ModelsRemanufacturing, Reprocessing and Product LifeMaterial Intensity and Product-Service IntensityRemanufacturing and ReprocessingProduct LifeEconomic and Social ImplicationsBusiness Models in the Performance EconomyEmploymentFiscal PolicyIndustrial Ecology and the Performance EconomyReferencesImpacts Embodied in Global Trade FlowsIntroductionImpacts of Trade: New Insights from Recent ResearchTaking a Consumption-Based Perspective: What Are Impacts Embodied in Trade?Recent Research on Environmental, Social and Economic Impacts Embodied in International TradeNotes on Methodological DevelopmentsMerging of DisciplinesAssessing Actual Impacts and Their UnsustainabilityAddressing Uncertainty in MRIO ModellingIs Trade Good or Bad? Some Final ThoughtsReferencesUnderstanding Households as Drivers of Carbon EmissionsIntroductionConsumption Accounting and Carbon FootprintingWhat Makes a Household Carbon Footprint?The Determinants of Household Carbon FootprintsComposition of Household Carbon FootprintsLooking Through the Lens of Time-UseThe Rebound EffectConcluding CommentsReferencesThe Social and Solidarity Economy: Why Is It Relevant to Industrial Ecology?IntroductionConceptual LinksWhat Is the Social and Solidarity Economy?What Are the Conceptual Links between SSE and IE, and the Limits?Linkages Between the SSE and IE in PracticeThe Sharing Economy vs. End of Pipe Giving: Applicability to IECommunity Currencies: Idea of Démurage and Applicability to IECrowdfunding in the Solidarity Economy: towards IE PrinciplesConclusionReferencesIndustrial Ecology in Developing CountriesIntroductionBenefits of IE for Developing CountriesGDP FixationPrevious Studies on IE in Developing CountriesIE in the Policy ContextWhat Has Been Achieved by IE in the Global South?Hotspots of IE in the Global SouthCleaner ProductionEco-Industrial DevelopmentCurrent IssuesImpact of TechnologyImpact of Population and AffluencePolicy Development and FundingWhat Can IE Give to the Global South?Challenges, Metrics and ModelsHow Can the Global South Contribute to IE?ConclusionsReferencesMaterial Flow Analysis and Waste ManagementIntroduction – Historical and Institutional PerspectivesReview of Empirical Studies from the Viewpoint of Target Wastes and SystemsWaste in GeneralConstruction and Demolition WasteEnd-of-Life Vehicles and e-WasteMetals in WastePhosphorus in WasteWaste PlasticsSpatial System BoundariesMFA-Based Policies and Concepts for Sustainable Resource and Waste ManagementConceptual Progress for Sustainable Resource and Waste Management and Its Relevance to MFA – Cases in China and JapanInitiatives in National and Intergovernmental Activities, Focusing on Policy Application of Economy-Wide MFA IndicatorsCurrent and Future DevelopmentsReferencesII Case Studies and Examples of the Application of Industrial Ecology ApproachesCircular Economy and the Policy Landscape in the UKIntroductionThe European Union's Development of Waste Policy and Resource Efficiency InitiativesUK Policy Responses to Circular Economy ObjectivesThe Resource Security Action PlanWaste Prevention PlansConclusionReferencesIndustrial Ecology and Portugal's National Waste PlansIntroductionPortuguese Waste Management Policy 1990–2014: The Contribution of Industrial EcologyPERSU 2020Impact Assessment of the Portuguese National Plan for Municipal Solid Waste 2014–2020Environmental ImpactsEconomic ImpactsReferencesThe Role of Science in Shaping Sustainable Business: Unilever Case StudyIntroductionThe Journey So FarLooking to the FutureConceptual Basis for Developing Scientific ApproachesApplying the Planetary Boundaries Approach for Business Decision-MakingConclusionReferencesPractical Implications of Product-Based Environmental LegislationIntroductionDealing with Hazardous Substance Restrictions in ProductsEnsuring Energy EfficiencyManaging Products at End of LifeDiscussion and ConclusionReferencesMultinational Corporations and the Circular Economy: How Hewlett Packard Scales Innovation and Technology in Its Global Supply ChainCircular Economy IntroductionWhy Innovation in Circular Economy Is ImportantResource AvailabilityResource EfficiencyAlignment of ConditionsThe Shift from Conceptual Ambiguity to Operational ClarityHP R2P2 programHP Device-as-a-Service ProgramHP Multijet Fusion 3D PrintingConclusionReferencesThe Industrial Ecology of the AutomobileIntroductionBiofuelsPowertrainsLightweight MaterialsConclusionsReferencesQuantifying the Potential of Industrial Symbiosis: The LOCIMAP Project, with Applications in the Humber RegionIntroduction: Brief History of Industrial Symbiosis in the Humber RegionThe LOCIMAP ProjectLOCIMAP: Guiding PrinciplesProspectsConclusionReferences
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