Informal Women Workers in the Global South: Policies and Practices for the Formalisation of Women’s

I. The global incidence of informalityII. Defining the informal economy, informal work and informal workersIII. Approaches to formalisationIV The countries considered in this volumeIndiaSouth AfricaGhanaMoroccoThailandV. The way forward: insights and policy recommendationsThe significance of the macroeconomic contextRecognising what genuine progressive formalisation meansThe formalisation of enterprises versus formality for workersFraming laws and regulations appropriatelyThe need to avoid oppressive or punitive regulationSocial context, rigidities of formalisation in the context of gender relationsThe urgent imperative of universal social protectionThe importance of mobilisation and associationNotesReferencesInsecurity of women workers and the chimera of formality in IndiaI. IntroductionII. Employment patternsIII. Formal and informal sector activity in IndiaIV. Official strategies for formalisationUnorganized Workers' Social Security Act (UWSSA), 2008Maternity Benefits Act (1961), Amendment 2017Pradhan Mantri MUDRA YojanaStand up IndiaThe Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Regulations of Street Vending) Act, 2014Demonetisation and digitisation of paymentsGoods and Services TaxV. Results from a primary survey of workers in Delhi NCRProfile of survey respondentsWages and conditions of workSocial security provisionFloating between "formal" and "informal" workDemonetisation, digital payments and bankingUnion participation and awareness of laws and government schemesVI. A brief postscript on the impact of the pandemicVII. ConclusionsNotesReferencesGrowing informality and women's work in South AfricaI. IntroductionII. Trends in aggregate employmentWaste pickers and reclaimersDomestic workersInformal artisanal women workers in the mining sectorIV. ILO Recommendation 204 and its relevance for South AfricaV. The gendered impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on informal workersVI. ConclusionReferencesDoes formalisation improve women's work conditions?: A review of the regulatory regime for contract farming and domestic trade in GhanaII The socio-economic and policy context of regulationTrends in economic growthChanges in the structure of the economyLabour market contextInformal employmentIII Contract farming and informality in agricultureContract farming in Ghana: from public private partnership to private sector leadershipFour private sector led cases of contract farmingBlue Skies Ghana LimitedCaltech Ventures Limited (Caltech)Serendipalm Company LimitedBuilding Businesses on Values, Integrity and Dignity (B-BOVID) Company LimitedThe regulatory regimes for contract farming schemes comparedThe nature of regulationState regulation: labour regulationCompany regulation: production and labour regulationsLabour regulation and the role of international certification bodiesThe labour relations of contract farmingRegulation of contract farming and its relationship with formalisation of employmentIV. Domestic tradingRegulation of domestic trading in GhanaState regulatory actions: banking and financial sector reformsLocal government regulatory approachesTraders associationsV. ConclusionVI. PostscriptAnti-COVID-19 measures for households, businesses and the general publicWho are the beneficiaries of Government of Ghana COVID-19 responses?Anti-COVID-19 measures and the case study groupsNotesReferencesStriving for formalisation: Gender and youth aspects of informal employment in MoroccoI. IntroductionII Economic contextLabour market trendsLabour market legislationEmployment in MoroccoInformal employment and surveys of informalityInformal employment in the NSISInformal employment in the NLFSMedical coverageRetirement benefitsContractual employmentWage employmentIII Policies with respect to formalisationPolicies towards the formalisation of enterprisesPolicies and laws towards worker's formalisationThe NESActive employment programmesWomen and active employment programmesLaws aiming at formalisation in specific sectorsOther policies of formalisationHealth insuranceThe pension systemBenefits for loss of employmentIV The impact and effectiveness of formalisation policies The impact of active employment programmesImpact of employment programmes on formalizationThe overlap between the beneficiaries' files and the salary declaration filesRecipient tracking surveysEvaluation of career pathsThe impact of the laws aiming at formalisation on specific sectorsEffectiveness of the law on formalising domestic employmentEffectiveness of the law on self-entrepreneurs at formalisationV. Youth and informal employmentVI. ConclusionNotesBibliographyThe socio-economic complexities of formalisation of women's employment in ThailandI. IntroductionMacroeconomic trendsIII. Thailand's formalisation policiesFormalisation of workers through expanding social securityAlternatives to social security: universal and targeted social protection schemesOther recent approaches to formalisationIV. A Gendered perspective on Thailand's formalisation policiesSocial security schemesFormalising online enterprises and developing online payment platformsV. The interaction between formalisation and gender in Thailand: three case studiesCase study 1: domestic work and cleaning servicesGovernment policies and domestic workStatistical overview of domestic work in ThailandFormal versus informal domestic and cleaning work in ThailandInterviews with "Mae Baan" working in BangkokConcluding remarks on domestic workersCase study 2: sex workLegalisation and formalityOrganisation and type of contractLegalisation and/or formalisationConcluding remarks on sex workCase study 3: manufacturingManufacture of textiles and wearing apparelManufacture of food productsConcluding remarks on manufacturing workersVI. ConclusionsNotesReferences
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