Turkish Muhammadan Theology

Johann Karl Valentin Bauer

Bauer was probably born around 1697 (or 1698 or 1699) and most likely lived in Rhetmar or Celle, based on the matriculation record in the University of Helmstedt and Jena as well as the dedication page for his Conspectum theologiae Turcarum Mochammedica. He initially studied at Helmstedt in 1718 before attending university at Jena in 1719, where he studied under philologist Heinrich Gottlieb Reime (d.1749). During his time at Jena, he studied Hebrew, Chaldean, Syriac, and Arabic. At Reime’s suggestion, Bauer wrote this dissertation on the theology in the Qur’an, which was published in 1720. The text of this dissertation is followed by a laudatory message from Reime to Bauer in which he praises his student at length and describes the studies Bauer undertook. Other than this dissertation, no other information could be found on this author. Therefore, Bauer’s biography is exclusively based on this dissertation, taken from his teacher Reime’s encomium of Bauer at the end of this work as well as the Registries of University of Helmstedt and Jena. He most likely died in the eighteenth century.1

Variant Names: Johannes Carolus Valentinus Bauer, J.C.V. Bauer, Jo. Car. Vai. Bauer, Io. Carol. Valentino Bauer, Jhn. Carl Valent., and Jhn. Carl Valent. Bauer

Summary and Analysis

Bauer’s dissertation sets out to explain (Turkish) Islamic theology using the Qur’an as the sole source in the spirit of the Lutheran belief in Sola Scriptura. He organizes points of interest into thirty-three sections, liberally quoting from the Qur’an in Arabic and providing a Latin translation. In his dissertation, he portrays Muhammad as the deceptive fabricator of the Qur’an’s contents, often dismissing as nonsense anything that does not agree with his own version of Christianity. Although he tends to portray Islam negatively, his dissertation is particularly worthy of study as he analyzes and compares Islamic and Christian theology articulated in the Qur’an and the Old and New Testaments, and as he examines intra-Christian differences between Catholics, Lutherans, and Calvinists (Reformed Church).

Bauer begins by saying that the foundation of Islam is a belief in one God and doing good works, unlike Lutheranism with its emphasis on Sola Fide as the means to salvation. This emphasis on good works as the means to salvation is closer to Catholicism than Lutheranism. Also, according to Bauer, Muhammad demanded to be recognized as God’s envoy and considered those who follow a non-Islamic religion as damned. He notes that Muhammad thought of Islam as ‘orthodox,’ as a continuation from true Judaism and Christianity, recognizing the Apostles and prophets as far back as Abraham.

The second and third sections of Bauer’s dissertation describe the Qur’an’s divine origins, which he dismisses as fabrication. He is particularly critical of Muhammad’s emphasis on his own importance as a religious authority by making himself second to God in the Qur’an and its co-author. Bauer would have found this particularly problematic as Protestants relied on scripture alone as religious authority, denying the need for a secondary interpreter such as the Pope or any other religious authority. The fourth section discusses Muhammad’s recognition of the Old and New Testaments. He acknowledges that Muhammad was familiar with the Bible and discusses many passages from it, though, for Bauer, Muhammad intermingles much falsehood in his retelling. He highlights that the Qur’an is given in the Arabic language in Muhammad’s “mother tongue” so that the individual Arabs could understand the text without intermediaries. This might have caught Bauer’s attention as Luther translated the Catholic Greek and Hebrew Bible into the vernacular for the German speaking people so that they could understand God’s words directly.

The fifth section acknowledges that Muslims (Turks) worship God. In the sixth section, Bauer criticizes Muhammad’s understanding of the nature of God, a blasphemous description to a Lutheran reader. In section seven, he critiques the Muslim belief in one God as opposed to the Christian belief in a triune God. In sections eight through twelve, he describes the Creation, how man and animals were formed, the nature of angels, divine stewardship, and how they differ from the Christian view. The thirteenth through eighteenth sections describe Islamic views on death and the afterlife, which Bauer dismisses for the most part as “carnal, wrong, and absurd” as he is offended by Muhammad’s hedonistic version of Paradise—men having multiple sexual partners, wealth, rich foods, finery, and so on. Sections nineteen and twenty cover eternal damnation. The following section outlines Islam’s teachings on sin and the belief that men can only be saved through the grace of God and good works. Sections twenty-two and twenty-three state God’s role on salvation and conversion. Section twenty-four outlines the importance of a true belief rather than an empty proclamation of faith (shahâda),

Turkish Muhammadan Theology 129 while section twenty-five considers the scarcity of references to baptism in the Qur’an though there are a few. Section twenty-six lists the good works that Islam most values, such as alms and taking care of orphans, while twenty-seven describes the rules for how and when Muslims pray. Section twenty-eight considers dietary laws.

The last sections focus on areas that Islam and Christianity hold in common, in whole or in part. For example, section twenty-nine describes Islam’s beliefs about Jesus: Muhammad denies the divinity of Christ and his ultimate crucifixion although he recognizes Jesus as a prophet and a righteous man who is immune from blasphemy. Bauer notes Muhammad’s condemnation of those who worship Jesus (Christians) as being worse than infidels. Section thirty discusses the Islamic belief that God leads men into error, which Bauer judges to be compatible with the Reformed belief in predestination; however, he notes that Muhammad believes God can show sinners mercy. The thirty-first section outlines the importance in Islam of keeping oaths and lists the Ten Commandments, which appear in the Qur’an; Bauer says that Muhammad accepts commandments one through eight but does not mention the ninth and tenth commandments in the Qur’an. In section thirty-two, he discusses Muhammad’s claim that the Qur’an is in harmony with and conforms to the Gospels, which came before it; and the final section briefly discusses marriage rules and sexual propriety for Muslims, including Muhammad’s sanction of polygamy and beating a disobedient wife as long as it is done in private.

A Conspectus of Turkish Muhammadan Theology (Jena, 1720)

On Turkish Religion, Scripture, and Theology in General

Section 1

Concerning the theology of the Turks, you should note that Muhammad, that contemptible impostor, summarizes the business of his religion in the following few words: “faith in God and the Last Day so that men may do good works.”2 Besides that, he takes it very badly if someone does not acknowledge him as the Messenger of God, or rejects his instruction.3 He calls his religion Islam.4 Furthermore, he treats anyone who follows another religion like they are one of the damned? He thinks that his religion is orthodox,6 and that the Apostles were confessors [to his faith],7 as was Abraham himself,8 although Muhammad bitterly denies that Abraham was a Jew.9 Muhammad did not want to be seen as someone whose intention was to forcibly compel everyone to accept the religion he invented,10 but for now, let us note that he soon changed his mind.11

Johann Karl Valentin Bauer, Conspectum theologiae Turcarum Mo-chammedicae, von der Religion der Türcken, 1720 (Courtesy of the Bavarian State Library, Munich)

Figure 4.1 Johann Karl Valentin Bauer, Conspectum theologiae Turcarum Mo-chammedicae, von der Religion der Türcken, 1720 (Courtesy of the Bavarian State Library, Munich).

The following sections will contain an outline of certain aspects of this theology.

On the Foundation of Turkish Theology

Section 2

The Qur’an, which contains the dogmas of the Turks, is the foundation of Turkish theology. It is, if not unparalleled, at least interesting

Turkish Muhammadan Theology 131 and remarkable.12 I have put together a description of this book, which was born of Muhammad’s imagination.1’ Muslims claim that God is the chief creator of the Qur’an,14 and sent it down from heaven during the month of Ramadan15 when followers should abstain from food and drink.16

The Qur’an declares that the path of salvation can be learned from Muhammad17 and that all its contents are truthful.18 Muhammad raves like a madman that “a book like this could not be composed by human powers”;19 he wants everyone to agree on the divine origin of his book.

Section 3

The secondary author of this book is none other than Muhammad, the Prophet of the worst quality.20 In assuming this title for himself and boasting of other things, he exposes his great arrogance and remarkable lust for telling lies.

Under great compulsion, he boasts about the divine revelation that was granted to him.21 He was sent alone “to teach the Qur’an,”22 “proof of which he boasts about” repeatedly.23 “God shall curse the man who scorns his teachings,”24 and “whoever does not believe in him will be damned for eternity.”25 On the other hand, “his followers will enjoy eternal blessings.”26

Therefore, no one should be surprised that Muhammad associates himself intimately with God,27 and praises his own book.28 But a clever man would be more careful and not claim the truth of his religion in this way.29

Section 4

The Holy Scripture, the foundation of our [Christian] theology, is not named once in the Qur’an. Despite this, Muhammad claims that the teachings of the Holy Scripture are in the Qur’an.30 He discusses many Christian teachings, but intermingles them with random nonsense.31

Muhammad even recognizes both Testaments, for he recounts the history of the flood from the Old Testament (although corrupted by his added falsehoods),32 and that of Moses33 and the Pharaoh.34 Although [Exodus] says that the Pharaoh drowned along with his soldiers, 5 Muhammad denies that the Pharaoh stayed under the sea.36

Muhammad also discusses the history of Lot,37 Joseph, and so on.38 He especially makes reference to the Pentateuch,39 though the rest of the Books of Holy Scripture are hardly left out.40 His Qur’an is at least their equal [the Old Testament],41 such that all must believe in it.42

He also narrates many things from the New Testament.43 He accepts that the Holy Scripture is inspired by God,44 but he considers it much “inferior to the Qur’an,”45 “which was revealed by God in the Arabic language,” Muhammad’s mother-tongue, “as a favor to the Arabs.”46

Muhammad rails earnestly against the People of the Book,4 by which he means nothing else than “those who exclusively follow the dogmas in the Holy Scriptures.”48 He sees the People of the Book as both good and evil.49 Finally, Muhammad also declares that his teachings can and should be spread by force,50 thus contradicting those things which we previously mentioned.51 So, by his own admission, his book can hardly be divine.52

On God

Section 5

There is no people in the entire world so savage that they do not recognize God in some form; so too do the Turks embrace God with both hands,53 and Him alone,54 whom they worship. Thus, they believe that He is spirit,55 self-governing,56 immutable,57 eternal,58 omnipotent,59 a miracle-worker,60 omniscient,61 merciful,62 omnipresent,63 alive,64 just,65 true,66 and the only One deserving worship.67

Section 6

Nonetheless, Muhammad includes a great many things in the Qur’an which challenge the dignity of God to a tremendous degree. For instance, he makes himself almost equal to God,68 attributes moral offense [misdemeanor] to Him,69 and states that He swears by creations70 and by the Qur’an.71 He is also convinced that God needs the help of man.72

Section 7

The Turks do not accept the mystery of the Trinity.73 They ardently deny that God the Father sired a son, '4 because He does not have a wife.75 We have also discovered certain references to the Holy Spirit in the Qur’an,76 but it is clear that these are to be understood as mere spiritual gifts.

Section 8

God created the heavens and the earth, and everything in them; this is emphasized throughout the entire Qur’an on almost every page.77 Yet we find Muhammad talking about a great many things in his teachings on which there is not even the slightest mention in the Holy Books.78 Among other things, he is hostile to divine glory when he claims that God conferred with his angels on the work of creation.79

On Creation

Section 9

The Qur’an discusses at length the time of creation, with a different account than the Holy Scripture, which declares that the earth was made on the first two days; on the other four days, the foodstuffs were produced that were necessary for the wild animals and man. This account is in opposition to Genesis.80 Then the Qur’an declares outright that the task of creation was entirely completed within six days.81

Section 10

As for the formation of man, the description in the Qur’an is very similar to the one in the Holy Scripture.82 For the Qur’an declares that man was shaped from mud,83 and does not deny that a soul was divinely bestowed upon him.84 It also grants that all subsequent men trace their origin from the first man.85 As for the creation of wild animals, the Qur’an contains the fiction that all were fashioned from the water.86 It places water above the heavens.87

On Angels

Section 11

The Turks accept the existence of angels,88 both good and evil.89 They also believe that God made angels from fire before man,90 and that the good ones serve God91 and men.92 They say that the evil ones draw men 97

to various sins.

Concerning the fall of the angels, the Turks believe that God ordered the angels to worship man,94 but some of them did not want to do this and for that reason they were expelled from heaven.95 He also gave wings to the angels.96 Finally, he accepts genies [jinn] as intermediaries between angels and men.97

Section 12

We also find in the Qur’an (and they are not to be scorned) traces of the divine Providence which began to make itself known immediately after the act of creation.98 The Turks believe that divine Providence manifests itself in two activities, governance and stewardship. Concerning governance, they declare that God places limits on all things.99 Likewise, they extend divine stewardship not only to men,100 but to all other creations as well.101

134 Religion and Theology

On the Providence of God

Section 13

Muhammad teaches that death is the common lot of all men,102 and that God established an end of life for men, which thev neither forestall nor 103


On Temporal Death

Section 14

The Qur’an declares that resurrection will follow death,104 but it will not be equal for everyone.105

On the Resurrection of the Dead and the Last Judgment

Section IS

The Last Judgment will follow the resurrection;106 it will be conducted by God Himself,107 and nothing will help men, not an intervention, not a bribe, not friendship; but they will take their rewards and punishments according to their deeds.108 “A trumpet will be heard at the same time,109 and many other signs will precede it.”110

On Eternal Blessing

Section 16

Muhammad believes in eternal blessing111 and provides a description of it.112 He is convinced that men can participate in whatever faith they wish,113 if only they believe and do good works;114 but that no one can receive eternal blessing without misfortune and strife—that is, suffering.115 He identifies even the degrees of glory and rewards that will be bestowed upon the faithful.116

Section 17

There are a great many names by which he calls this blessed and ephemeral life. He calls it “Paradise,11' the gardens of pleasure,118 the gardens of Eden,119 the place of good news,”120 and other things of this sort, which I do not feel are necessary to deal with here.

Section 18

The conceptions which Muhammad fashions concerning eternal blessedness are, for the most part, carnal, wrong, and absurd, for he declares

Turkish Muhammadan Theology 135 that chosen men will have wives,121 and they will lie atop couches decked with gold and jewelry,122 and they will eat there123 and will wear valuable clothing, and so on.124

On Eternal Damnation

Section 19

But how will some men be absolved and others condemned in the Last Judgment?125 Therefore, I am adding a section here on eternal damnation. The Turks believe in immediate damnation,126 and it is not only a temporal thing, but also eternal;12 moreover, they recognize that there will be degrees of punishment [in Hell].128 Among other absurdities, Muhammad decreed that men condemned to eternal damnation will regenerate their skins [so that they burn continuously].129

Section 20

The names by which Muhammad calls eternal damnation are hot boiling water,130 wretched resting place,131 foul water,132 and the destruction by fire.133

On Sin

Section 21

Muhammad does not deny that man is powerfully corrupted by sin. He also fully recognizes that man had a very fortunate lot [Garden of Eden] from the outset.134

He teaches that the creator of sin is the Devil;135 but that God offers forgiveness.136 For this reason, Muhammad compels his followers to repent,137 although he denies that all sins are pardoned.138

On Grace, Conversion, and Justification

Section 22

Muhammad teaches that men are saved by the grace of God,139 which no one should take for granted.140

Section 23

Muhammad asserts that man cannot convert himself [renewal of faith in God after sinning],141 since it is God’s role to convert men.142 He describes how this is done.143 He says that justification [salvation] isthe task of God alone, from whom it freely flows, and that God acts justly toward whomever He wishes,144 toward the one who does good deeds,145 and the one who has faith.146

On Faith

Section 24

Muhammad commends faith as the primary means of salvation,147 and thus he promotes it earnestly.148 He says that it is insufficient for someone to say, “I believe,”149 and that there are few who genuinely believe.

On Baptism and Good Works

Section 25

We cannot say there are no references to baptism in the Qur’an, but there are very few.150

Section 26

Muhammad includes good works among the means of salvation,151 and says that through good works, men gain merit in the eyes of God.152 In particular, he considers alms to be of great value;153 but whoever gives alms without faith and for the sake of ostentation does so in vain.154 He exhorts his followers to show pity for orphans,155 whom it is a great sin to wrong.156 Drunkenness, gambling,157 and greed are also great sins according to him.158

On Prayers

Section 27

The Turks pray many times a day, however, it is not permitted for everyone to pray, such as drunkards and menstruating women.159 As they pray, people turn their eyes toward the Temple at Mecca,160 which they claim was created by God.161 Also, they thoroughly wash their hands and face before prayers.162 Moreover, they submit themselves totally in service,163 and they state that [worshipping] God is the sole purpose of life.164

On Food

Section 28

They are extremely particular in their food choices. They do not eat everything indiscriminately. For example, they do not eat carrion, blood,

Turkish Muhammadan Theology 137 pork, and strangled animals.165 Nevertheless, it is permissible to eat these foods in times of necessity, or if someone does so unwittingly.166

On Christ

Section 29

Muhammad does not acknowledge our great Savior Christ as the true God,167 nor as the son of God,168 but as a pure and splendid man made of dust.169 He thinks that Jesus is the son of Mary,170 who bore him with 171


He also says that God, if he wished, could destroy Jesus.172 Muhammad denies Christ’s death and the sacrifice that he made for men. Instead, he asserts that Christ’s likeness, a holy simulacrum of Him, not the Messiah himself, was crucified.173

At the same time, he states that Jesus reanimated not only men, but also birds. Jesus did this by the dispensation of God,14 which he also used to perform miracles.175 Muhammad calls Jesus a Messenger of God,176 a righteous man,177 immune from blasphemy, and says that those who worship Jesus are worse than infidels.178

Moreover, Muhammad calls him a prophet sent by God.179 Yet Muhammad decrees that he himself is much greater than Jesus. This is quite evident, as Muhammad always mentions his own name next to that of God [in the Qur’an].180

On Predestination

Section 3 0

On the doctrine of predestination, Muhammad seems to stand on the side of the Reformed [i.e., the Calvinists]. I have noted a passage [in the Qur’an]181 which seems to prove this. He declares that God leads men into error and causes them to make mistakes.182

The rest of Muhammad’s pronouncements on this matter seem compatible with the declarations of the Holy Scripture. For instance, Muhammad says that, “God grants His mercy on whom He wishes by special dispensation;183 God spares and punishes whom He wishes,”184 and other things of this nature. He also speaks at times in a reasonably orthodox way about this doctrine.185

On the Law

Section 31

Muhammad recognizes divine laws186 as being necessary.187 Hence, he stringently demands that agreements188 and oaths189 should be honored.

He wants anyone who has transgressed their oath to make up for it in a willing manner.190

He makes the Ten Commandments his own. Indeed, he approves of the first commandment,191 the second,192 the third,193 the fourth,194 the fifth,195 the sixth,196 on which he imposes a unique punishment,19 the seventh,198 and the eighth.199 He says nothing about the ninth and tenth commandments.

On the Gospel

Section 32

Muhammad has his own interpretation of the Gospel,200 and he says that the Qur’an is in harmony and in agreement with it.201

On Marriage

Section 33

Muhammad sanctions marriage202 and polygamy,203 but not with infidel women,204 nor with those whom one’s father has already married, nor with mothers, sisters.205 It is not permitted to have sex with menstruat-ing women.

[The Qur’an] says, “Let men be dominant over women,”207 and “it is permitted for them to give their wives a writ of divorce two times.”208 When a husband dies, a year’s food and clothing is left as a gift for the spouse.209 On the other hand, a wife should stay a widow for four months and ten days before she is married to another man.210 If his wife refuses to obey, a man can set her in order with blows, but only in separate chambers and out of the sight of others.211


  • 1 Bauer’s biography was compiled from the following sources: Heinrich Gottlieb Reime, “Autori Respondent!, Io. Carol. Valentino Bauer, Theol. Stud.” in Conspectum theologia Turcarum Mochammedicae, Augsburg Staats-und Staatbibliothek, Diss. Phil. 1101 (Jena, 1720), 54-56; Wilhelm Haller, Mochammads lehre von Gott aus dem Kor’aän gezogen, Universitats- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt, D Hb 775 (Altenburg, 1779), 146-7; Georg Mentz and Reinhold Jauernig, Die Matrikel der Universität Jena vol. 1 (Jena: G. Fischer, 1944), 31; and Herbert Mundhenke, Die Matrikel der Universität Helmstedt 1685-1810, vol. 3 (Hildesheim: Lax, 1979), 112.
  • 2 This is sufficiently clear from Q. 2:62, according to the Marracci’s edition,

but also in Hinckelmann’s translation in verse 59, where it has the following words: j-“' J*“ b-1'-4, b"' J)

ú>j-=^ ** '-*>*• Xs “Indeed, believers, whether they are Jews, or Nazarenes (i.e., Christians), or Sabaeans, whosoever believes in God and the Last Day, and does good works; for such people will have their reward from their Lord, and fear will not fall upon them, and they will not be afflicted with sadness.” [Hinckelmann, henceforth, Hinck.J

  • 3 See Q. 2:90 (or Hinck. 84), where Muhammad names him “unfortunate, who sells his soul so that he does not believe in that which God has revealed” (in the Qur’an), “because of envy,” and so forth. See also verses 91, 101, 122, 143 (Hinck. 95, 115, 137). But this is found in the last of these verses: “We placed you Muslims, the just people between Christians and Jews, to bear witness to the people, and for the Messenger to be an ambassador for you.”
  • 4 From the root salama means “health,” “peace,” “greetings,” “making peace,” and, accordingly, in the fourth conjugation, (aslama), “give oneself,” “submit to mastery,” and “entrust one’s affairs to God.” From this fourth conjugation comes the word e^L)(/s/äw), which means “religion, whereby anyone assents to the will and revelation of God according to Muhammad’s principles.” Thus, no name pleases the Turks more than if we give them the title of the ¿ij-AJLi (tnuslimün), “men endowed with divine religion,” in German, Muselmänner. This form of address was given by Muhammad himself, Q. 2:129, 132 (Hinck. 122, 125); see also 2:138 (Hinck. 130).
  • 5 For example, Q. 3:85 says, ¿p>j:

“Whoever desires a religion other than Islam,” that is, the religion of Muhammad, “this religious system of worship will certainly not be accepted by God and they will certainly be losers in the Hereafter,” and see also verses 85 and 87 (Hinck. 78,79, and 80): “Their punishment will be (he adds, in the final verse I cited) that the curse of God, the Angels, and all men will be upon them.” Also, see Q. 3:19 (Hinck. 18) and likewise, Q. 5:4.

  • 6 Muhammad calls “Abraham orthodox to that theology,” which means that Abraham adhered to Muslim theology, as Muhammad prattles on in Q. 2:136 (Hinck. 129). See also Q. 3:67, hanif, “worshipping the true religion,” from «¿»ii, “he followed the true religion, rejected idols,” and so on.
  • 7 This is demonstrated in Q. 3:52 (Hinck. 45-46). Muhammad says, “When Jesus felt disbelief among them (the Jews), he said, ‘Who then are supporters of God?”’ The Apostles answered, “We shall be the supporters to God, we believe in God, and He is the witness that we are indeed Muslims:
  • 8 Q. 3:67 (Hinck. 60) is relevant here, for it says: Vj Lpjw ¿A* u

>. ¿is U; U1L» lijja ¿is jSJj “Abraham was not a Jew, nor a Christian, but was in fact an orthodox true Muslim; he was not one of the polytheists.”

  • 9 This is agreed upon according to the verse already cited.
  • 10 The passage from Q. 10:99 (Hinck. 99) is relevant here: “If Your Lord had wanted, surely all those men, who were all together on the earth, would have believed. Therefore, will you compel men by force to be believers?” [Q. 10:100]: “No soul may have belief except by the will of God.”
  • 11 See section 4, toward the end.
  • 12 The Qur’an’s name comes from the Arabic article J' and from the word

This form occurs at Q. 72:1, but without madda, 1 with a moveable ¿jji, or even ¿A? from which it gets the common name ‘Qur’an,’ and which form exists in Sura 2 (verse 186 in the Marracci edition and 181 in Hinck.). That means “selection” or “collection,” because the root (A means “selecting” or “collecting.”

Q. 2:2 (Hinck. 2) says M jailii! ^1» “There is nothing ques

tionable in this book” (or anything scandalous), but “guidance for the righteous.” Q. 3:138 describes the Qur’an in almost the same terms, ¿Ah li*

“It is itself a clear explanation to men, and guidance and warning for the righteous.”

This is clear from Q. 2:89 (Hinck. 83), for it says *>' uh

h*- LaJ “After the Book, the Qur’an, came to them from God, confirming that which [was] among them,” that is, containing the complement to those Biblical books which they previously had. See also the following verses Q. 2:90-91 (Hinck. 84 ana 85) as well as Q. 3:2 (Hinck. 1), for he says:

^j-« JjjlJ AjAj L«J JjaJLj CjLj£J| ¿¿¿A Jjjj

(jlijlll Jjiij ^Lill JJ.

“God does not exist unless that God is living and enduring.” [Q. 3:3]: “He sent to you the Book with truth, which confirms that which was in his hand,” that is, which had been before him. “He sent the law of Moses and the Gospel previously as guidance for the righteous.” Finally, He sent “individual Tomes of Prophets.” See also Q. 4:82 (Hinck. 81), and following both editions, verse 136; likewise, Q. 5:7, 6:19, 7:196; Q. 9:111, Q. 10:15-16, and Q. 40:2.

Q. 2:185 (Hinck. 181).

Q. 2:185.

Q. 2:2; Q. 4:44 (Hinck. 50); Q. 6:92 (Hinck. 92). These words are worthy to be mentioned here, from Q., 14:1, whcjre Muhammad says about his Qur’an: «Ihll j-a ¿Liijji

^sJi. “We sent a Book to you, in order that you might raise men from the depths of darkness into the light, according to the will of the Lord, upon the beloved and praiseworthy path.”

He denies that anything perverse is found in the Qur’an in Q. 18:1, as well as the following. Among other things, he says about the Qur’an, in Q. 2:91 (Hinck. 85): >-*! ¿AJi ¡A} “Certainly this Book confirms the

[Books] that they had,” meaning the Books that had been divinely granted to them previously.

In Q. 2:23-24 (Hinck. 21-22) he writes: >4^ 4s2 ¿j)j

<11? ¿h> »>>4 “[if y0U doubt] what we sent to our servant,” meaning Muhammad, “then compose another sura,” or chapter, “like this.” In Q. 11:1, the Impostor boasts that “this Book is wisely laid out”; as well as other things. Muhammad gave himself the title of Prophet: Q. 8:64, 65, and 70 (Hinck. 65, 66, 71), and elsewhere. , t

Q. 2:91 (Hinck. 85). He preaches in Q. 72:1: 44 Aai ¿Jj Ji

ulji Lil ijJLls “Say [to them], ‘it has been revealed to me that a group of the jinn listened carefully and said: ‘We have certainly heard a wonderful reading’.” He speaks on this matter in Q. 53:5 with emphasis: 41c.

In 53:2-4 “Your ally [Muhammad] has not gone astray” says God about him and “he [Muhammad] has not erred. He does not speak out of desire (or the itch), only through the revelation given to him” {A4'—= J-= '■->

V' 4 ¿>l * ¿44 L. j). Likewise, in Q. 53:10-11,

L. jijili ¿AS u * u> »xlo- : “The Lord of mighty power has

taught him. Indeed, He revealed to His servant what He meant to reveal. His heart and mind in no way made up what he saw.”

See Q. 2:120 (Hinck. 113), and likewise 151 (Hinck. 146); Q. 3:164 (Hinck. 158). He says: 49 J-? j <^4 4*j 4 ¿4-*>2i ^1» 4>' J* JI

^uisii 4-2*4 “Then God was favorable towards the faithful when He

Turkish Muhammadan Theology 141 raised a Messenger among them from their midst to teach them the signs and purify them and to give His book,” the Qur’an, “and His wisdom to them.” Q. 11:2 says “that you do not do service except to God; indeed, I come to you from Him as a Warner of punishments, and an evangelist.” Q. 2:159 (Hinck. 154). cjAJi > u jj-cA >111 “Those who conceal the clear signs we have sent down and the guidance.” See also Q. 2:119 (Hinck. 112).

Q. 2:161.

Q. 4:52,53, 115.

Q. 4:54; see also 2:25, 40:7, and 7:203.

Q. 8:1, 59:4 and the passages to be discussed in the next section.

Q. 2:78.

Q. 2:119 (Hinck. 113) says, j» JA V s 'jA J J-=>-A alul—ji di “Indeed, We have sent you [Muhammad] with the truth, as a bringer of good news (evangelist) and a warning, and you will not be questioned about the companions of Hellfire.” See also Q. 2:76 and Q. 53:12, where he is asked the following: AjjjLAi “Will you dispute with him about

that which he saw?” Of course, this seems unbefitting to him.

See Q. 2:41 (Hinck. 38): A-&# A cjJjji Uj ijiai “Believe in that which I sent, the Qur’an, in confirmation of the revelation (the Books of the Holy Scripture) which you have already had for a long time.”

See Q. 2:29 (Hinck. 29), where he spouts off that God created the entirety of the earth, but also “seven heavens” (Q. 2:34); “that the Angels were compelled by God to worship Adam,” the first man. And so, at the very least, he does not make up what he wants at every point according to his whims, such that he always assumes or mixes up some portion of truth from the Holy Books, as in the history of Abraham, Q. 6:75 (Hinck. 74 and 85; also Hinck. 84).

Q. 7:61 (Hinck. 57).

Sura 28.

Sura 28 and Q. 7:104 (Hinck. 101). They are trifles, to put it thusly, because in Q. 7:124, Muhammad tells the following tale: “Since the nobles of Egypt sincerely believed that they were under threat after Moses performed his miracles, the Pharaoh said that their hands and feet would be cut off and that they would be crucified.” Whoever wishes will find many other things of that same nature here and in other verses.

Q. 7:136 (Hinck. 132).

Q. 10:90 (Hinck. 92).

Q. 11:70, 74, 77 (Hinck. 73).

Q. 12:4 (Hinck. 4).

Q. 2:87 (Hinck. 81), Sj* >' 'Ah'j J-yA > '-'Aj -jCA '-a' c-AJi “We have already brought the Book to Moses, and We have made him obey the Messengers, and We have brought explanations to Jesus, the Son of Mariam.”

Muhammad declares in Q. 2:4 (Hinck. 3) that his Qur’an will be useful to, among others, ¿¡A j-> J>i A AJj JA A j“those who believe in that which has been revealed to you” (meaning Muhammad, since he lies that the Qur’an was divinely bestowed upon him); also, those who believe in the Holy books of the Bible, which have been divinely inspired long before Muhammad’s time. See also Q. 5:53 (Hinck. 50).

Q. 2:40-41 (Hinck., toward the end of verses 38 and 39), where he says, “Believe in what I have revealed to you, in confirmation of that which is already with you.” See also 2:91 (Hinck. 85).

See Q. 32:2; see also 32:23.

Q. 7:40 (Hinck. 38); it alludes to Christ’s sermon (Matthew 19:24, Luke 18:25). See also Q. 5:46 (Hinck. 44); and also 5:52 (Hinck. 48), where he clearly draws his material from Luke 16:24. In Sura 19, it is repeated at length and likewise corrupted.

See Q. 2:53 and 3:3 (Hinck. 2) where it says: “God sent the law of Moses and the Gospel prior to the Qur’an.” We have cited the passage above. Q. 5:77 is also relevant here, where He commands observation of the law and the Gospel. A verse dealing with Jesus, our blessed Savior, says likewise: Q. 19:30 (Hinck. 31), for He introduces him, speaking thus: <61 JlS i^jG* 3 3 “He (Jesus) said, ‘I am of course the servant

of God, who gave me the Book and sent me as His Prophet, and made me blessed’,” and ¿6JI gy» >1 JJj “This is Jesus himself, the word of truth.” See also Q. 5:87.

Q. 2:23, 24 (Hinck. 21,22).

Q. 12:2 says, Suijji ill jjAII ¿AjSJi ^IjI ¿Uj “Indeed, I sent

the Qur’an to you in the Arabic language so that you might understand it.” See also Q. 19:97.

They are called ^USJi 3*i, or “the people of the book, men of scripture” in Q. 3:70 (Hinck. 63), because they remain singularly committed to the Books of Holy Scriptures and reject the Qur’an, Talmud, and other books of this sort. See also Q. 4:153, 171.

This is clear from Q. 2:113 (Hinck. 107) and Q. 5:65, 68, 86 (Hinck. 81).

Q. 3:110 (Hinck. 109).

Q. 8:60 (Hinck. 62); also(65, 67 (Hinck. 67j. There he says, i-« <4-! 3

v f*J j-“ 4:1 Jto O“ I

V 4:1 Jjj_ j-. ijaijj 2ii that is, “Take ven

geance against the infidels as you can: with violence or chains or the reins of horses; that you may strike fear into these enemies of God, your own enemies, and all enemies of that stripe. You do not know them, but God knows them; and what you expend on this endeavor, along the path of God, will be repaid to you in whole, and you will not be oppressed.” Section 1 at the end. ;

This passage stands out in Q. 4:82, b'1* 4 <61 jj* ii* >> ji£ jJ j jipti Hii M “Will they not pay close attention to the Qur’an? If it were not from God, certainly they would find an abundance of discrepancies in it.” This can be proven at once, from the heading of the majority of Suras, which we have also put at the head of this treatise. But also, there are many passages in the Qur’an declaring the existing of a supreme divinity, and some assuming it. To be brief, Q. 2:1 says straightaway, ¿«-JIjJi <6 Li^Ji “Praise be to God, Lord of the Universe.” See also Q. 2:7-8 (Hinck. 6, 7); likewise, Q. 2:19; and Q. 4:1.

Q. 40:3 says, VI

A description of God is appropriate here, which is found in Q. 6:103: ^>4 V jUojS'i 3 “Vision does not comprehend Him and He comprehends all vision.”

Hence, Q. 6:14 says about God, V j JjJal “He Himself nourishes, but is not nourished.”

Q. 6:34 (Hinck. 34) says, <61 cjLiK! Jlii Vj “none can change the words of God.” See too Q. 6:115, 133; Q. 10:64 (Hinck. 64, 65).

Whence also Q. 6:102 recognizes Him as “the creator of everything that exists and the steward of all things.”

Turkish Muhammadan Theology 143 “Omnipotent,” is stated explicitly in Q. 6:18 (Hinck. 19), and verse 17 describes Him as such when it says, 3s <61 “God is powerful

over everything.” See also Q. 6:106 (Hinck. 100).

Thus Q. 3:113 (Hinck. 109) praises certain people who are dedicated to the Holy Scriptures, because “they are inspired by the marvelous signs of God,” <6' and he mentions here and there additional miracles per

formed by God. See Q. 7:107 (Hinck. 107, according to the Marracci’s edition); likewise, Q. 7:117 and 118 (Hinck. 115); 28:31 (Hinck. 31).

See Q. 2:95 (Hinck. 89). Q. 8:43 neatly declares that j¿4» “God knows what is in the heart,” because He penetrates the secret depths even of one’s breast. See also Q. 6:117,124.

Q. 1:2 (Hinck. 1).

Q. 2:115 (Hinck. 109) says, ^4» <61 j) <6i gji J

“God is the East and the West. Therefore, wherever you turn is the face of God. Indeed, God is abundantly all-encompassing and knowledgeable.” See also Q. 4:108 (Hinck. 108), and likewise 126.

Q. 3:2 (Hinck. 1) says, J4 V <6' “God is not God unless He is

alive and exists in and of Himself.”

Q. 3:4 (Hinck. verse 3) ascribes to Him the power of taking vengeance and calls Him (•lijj). The description of God that exists in Q 3s:56-57 is quite relevant here, j—aU ¿h tiaii

¿•j-JUaJl o.-ij y ijj-ai jjjJi “And then, those who

were infidels I shall certainly punish them terribly in this world and in the Hereafter, and no one will be able to help them. But those who believe and act rightly will be well compensated, for God does not love unfaithful.” Q. 3:95, <6' “God has spoken the truth” (Hinck. 58). See also Q. 4:87 (Hinck. 89).

Q. 41:37, IjlA— Ij 7j 11I7 _^illj jl^illj JjII' AjLJ , jSu ¡»isS jj “Among His signs are night and day, and likewise the sun and the moon; venerate not the sun nor the moon, but venerate God who created these things, if you wish to worship Him.”

Q. 3:32 (Hinck. 29) declares: ¿1x4b <61 “Obey God and His Messenger.” A similar message appears in 3:50 (Hinck. 44), jj«3^3' j <61 b^u “Therefore, fear God, and obey me.”

Q. 3:54 (Hinck. 47) says, ¿>b <6b$<«_$ “They, the Israelites,

planned deception, but God schemed to deceive [them in turn] for God is the most outstanding of deceivers.” See also Q. 8:30 (Hinck. 30).

See in addition to the others, the last Suras, particularly Sura 51, where the lie is told that He swore by sowers, by porters, by those who run easily, by the wind that scatter, and by all sorts of other nonsense.

Q. 44:2 swears, ¿«-441 “by the clear book.”

Q. 47:7, ¿it Ijjiajj jj “O you who believe! If you help

God, God will help you.”

Q. 5:73 (Hinck. 77) makes a declaration on this matter: <61 jl ijlis ¿«ill jiS jil ¡»Ji ¿.lie jjiJi ¿al,a_Ji 71 <11 j-u jAiXcJii “They are blasphemous who

say, ‘God is, of course, a third of three things’,” a trinity. “But God is only a single God, and such infidels shall meet with a grievous torment.” And Q. 5:75 (Hinck. 79) adds:

“The Messiah” (meaning Christ, may blasphemy be gone from the word!), “the son of Mary, is not, but a Messenger. Messengers came forth well before him, and his mother was a woman of truth.” See also Q. 72:2-3.

Q. 112:2-4 says, ¿Ai 3 4 3 ¡4 & “God is everlasting.

He does not beget; He was not begotten. And no other is His equal.” Seealso Sura 19, for after Muhammad had praised Jesus, our Savior, who can never be uplifted in praise enough, yet he holds backs his praises to deny that he is the son of God. Q. 19:35 (Hinck. 35, 36) says, >> ^4 ¿>1 jUL.

“It is not befitting for God to have a son; praise be to Him!” Thus, Q. 72:3 charges earnestly, lilj iiii u “He did not take a wife, nor did He have a son.”

Q. 2:87 (Hinck. 81) states, u-ji" SUijij ¿AaLJI Uulj “We gave

Jesus, the son of Mary, clear proofs and We strengthened him with the Holy Spirit.” Muhammad says the same about him in 2:253, and about all people of faith—that is, such people who, in his judgment, oppose neither God nor Muhammad (Q. 58:22), whose praises could be witnessed by many.

Q. 2:21-22 proclaims, jjjJi j j

Till ¿La v.«-«-—-I Jj-a Jj-il J J Lilji *

¡»Hi j iSijji ai IjJxaj Hi “Men! Worship your God, who created you and those who were before you, that you may learn to worship Him who made for you the earth to spread across and the heavens to build in, and sends water from the sky and produces thereby crops for your nourishment. Therefore, do not make another equal to God knowingly.” In Hinck., this is at the end of verse 19 and after.

Among such lies, I rightly mention here that “He creates seven heavens,” ¿4-, in Q. 2:29 (Hinck. 27). See also Q. 41:12 (Hinck. 11) and Q. 78:11.

Concerning these things, see Q. 2:30 (Hinck. 28). Also, see Q. 15:28-31, where Muhammad blathers on about God having wanted the angels to worship the created man, which the angels did, except the Devil.

Q. 41:9 (Hinck. 8) says, ¿h-jj “Do you surely

disbelieve Him who created the earth in two days?” Also, Q. 41:10 adds, I»'-4 “He made them sustenance in four days.” Mu

hammad offers up the rest of what is relevant here, in the cited verse and elsewhere, without any proper order and in quite a mixed-up fashion.

Q. 10:3 and Q. 11:7.

Q. 23:12 states j- uili. jili “We shaped man from pre

existing substance, from mud.”

See also Q. 6:2.

In Q. 15:28, the lie is told that God said to the angels: JlLslXa

“I will indeed create a human being, fashioned carefully from pure and fine mud.” Concerning the soul, however, it says the following in verse 29, j M cjsjj j Ajjj-. liji “Therefore, after I make

him and breathe into him from My own Spirit, then bow down and worship him.”

Q. 4:1 rightly claims, '-«-?• j j WJ- j-

♦>-4? rJJi cju j “Alas! Men, fear your Lord, who created you from

one soul and fashioned from it his woman, and from these two spread abroad many men and women.” See too Q. 6:99 (Hinck. 98), and Q. 7:189. Q. 24:45, J* Jli “God created all the beasts from the waters.” Q. 23:18, “We sent water from the heav

ens (look upon it!) and We made it stay upon the earth.” See also Q. 6:99 (Hinck. 99).

Muhammad mentions angels in Q. 3:18 and 39.

Q. 2:34 (Hinck. 32), ¿AS? V' ¿¿S 9--?—' ASjXJJ U3 jjj

¿jjiiSJi “After We said to the angels, ‘Worship Adam,’ then they worshipped him; but the Devil refused and exulted in his arrogance and became an infidel.”

Q. 15:27, jlj j- JA j- »uili. jiaJl j “But we have already made a demon, a seething wind of fire” (a strong spirit).

Q. 4:172, JxjLdl ji jj—JI. »Sn.a; jj “The Messiah Jesus

Christ was not to be a servant to God, nor to the angels near to God.” In Q. 3:124 (Hinck. 120), he writes, ^^4? ?£?j j' ¿Ji ¿^¡-j-U Jjii 11

jjjx» i£»XJi <-»yi “You shall say to the faithful, ‘Does it not suffice for you that your Lord gave you for help three thousand angels that were sent to you?’.”

Q. 2:268 (Hinck. 271) says, AJLailu 3 jliaiJi “Satan rushes

upon you with poverty and will give you foul commands.” See Q. 4:60 (Hinck. 63) and Q. 15:39-40.

Q. 17:61.

See Q. 15:31.

Two, three, or four each, Q. 35:1.

Q. 6:100 (Hinck. 100) says the following about them: j^ll ASj-1 & b1** 5 cllli 3 “J bAA 3 3 “They made genies (jinn) associates with God,

although He created them. They falsely attributed to God sons and daughters.” Q. 6:128 states that they were heavily involved with men, to whom they were sent as Messengers from God and who fell in a similar manner as men (Q. 6:130). See in its entirety Sura 72 as well as Q. 46:18.

Q. 10:3 (Hinck. 3) says, “Indeed! Your Lord is God, who created heaven and earth in six days.” It continues, j-Vl ¿4 b“-1 “then He as

sumes His throne to manage affairs.”

Q. 3:26 (Hinck. 25), Ji “Speak, Thou God, the keeper of the

kingdom! Thou shall give the kingdom to those whom Thou wish; and Thou shall remove the kingdom from whom Thou wish. Thou shall make him outstanding whom Thou wish, and humble whom Thou wish. For the good is in Thine hand, for Thou are Almighty.”

Q. 3:27 says, “Thou send night unto day, and Thou send day unto night; Thou draw the living from the dead, and Thou draw the dead from the living; and Thou show boons to whom Thou wish, without reckoning.” See too Q. 10:31 (Hinck. 32), Q. 16:72 (Hinck. 74).

Q. 11:7, Ubj J“ “There is not an animal on earth,

but that its resources also come from God, and He himself knows its place of rest.” See too Q. 87:2-5.

Q. 3:185 (Hinck. 182), ¿y-Ji UJii j£ “Every person is going to taste death.” Q. 4:78 says, “Wherever you will be, death will

follow you, even if you are in lofty towers.”

Q. 3:145 (Hinck. 139), jib cjj-l jl ji£ Uj “No one dies except by the will of God.” What Muhammad says in the same verse is also noteworthy: “Whoever wants the wages of this world, We shall give it to him from it; but whoever wants the wages of the future world, We shall give to him from that, and then We shall count up those who give thanks.” See alsp Q. 3:157-8 (Hinck. 50); Q. 7:34 (Hinck. 32), where it says, lib J^i p’ J^j jy} jjjAti-u y “An end has been set for every people, and if their end comes, they shall not delay one hour, nor shall they forestall it.” See also Q. 23:43.

See Q. 2:85 (Hinck. 79) and 2:174 (Hinck. 169). Q. 3:9 says, ¿-L^^lii Luj jLxjJi y -SjI Jl ,-ijj y ^uli “Our Lord! Indeed, Thou are going to gather up men for the day (of the resurrection), there is no doubt about it: God will not fail His promise.” See also Q. 3:55, Q. 6:12, and 26:81.

A relevant passage in Q. 2:275 says, jjJ' yi jj-JL y b_Ji jAll jLkjJi AiuiJj “Those who practice usury certainly shall not rise, unless he rises as one who has been driven mad by Satan.”

Q. 2:48 (Hinckel. 45), Vj 4-“ о4*1 Чя

Jjj—344 Xs Ч4-4 “Thus, fear the day when any man will not be able to pay another’s debts, nor will an intervention be accepted for him, nor will equivalent property be accepted for him, nor will they find any aid.” Hence, Q. 1:3 calls God, ¿язЛ fa “the Master, the King of the Day of Judgment.” Q. 2:8 refers to “the last and final day.”

Q. 2:254 says the same. See also Q. 3:10 (Hinck. 8).

Q. 6:73.

They are described at length, particularly in Suras 81 and 82, from a translation of which I shall provide some examples to satisfy the curious reader: Muhammad speaks thus on these things: “When the sun becomes obscure; and when the stars fall; and when the mountains are made to walk about; and when pregnant camels lack in milk; and when wild beasts gather together; and when the seas are aflame.” “And when books are revealed; and when the heavens are robbed of their covering; and when the netherworld burns more violently; when paradise draws nearer; will he know all things, and will man recall what he did?” He also says on the subject: “When the sky is split; when the stars are scattered; when the seas are mixed up; when graves are turned upside down; the soul will know what it accomplished and what it did not.” Q. 3:107 (Hinck. 103) says, ЧЧ ¡»л

“But as for those whose faces will turn white, they shall be in God’s mercy.

They will abide therein eternally.”

He then describes the place [of eternal blessing] “as a garden, at the heart of which rivers flow, where there are also wives and the blessing from God,” in the cited passage, 3:15 (Hinck. 13); likewise, Q. 3:133 (in Hinck., at the end of verse 126): He calls paradise the breadth of heaven and the earth. See also Q. 4:13 (Hinck. 17).

Q. 2:62 (Hinck. 59), ■‘‘‘Ч j-«i J-4 IjjI* jjili j ijiJ jjili Ji

>4 J iit liJUa “Certainly, those

who believe—the Jews, the Christians, the Sabaeans—whoever believes in God and in the final day and does good works, certainly their reward will be with the Lord, and fear will not hang over them, nor will they be stricken with sorrow.”

See Q. 2:82 (Hinck. 76). But Q. 3:134 (Hinck. 128) requires specifically that those who wish to enjoy eternal blessing “give alms, both in times of plenty and times of hardship, control their anger, and pardon others.” Q. 2:214 (Hinck. 209), ЧЧ >> 4 44

fM-j— “Do you think that you will enter Paradise, when nothing has yet happened to you similar to what others suffered before you? Disaster struck them, hardship befell them, they were afflicted with dread.”

Q. 46:19, jj-dld'y j IjKc I— cju.J£1 } “Each man will have

his rank, according to the things that he did, and He will repay him for his acts, and he will not be treated unjustly.”

In Q. 2:25, Muhammad makes the pointless argument that rivers flow through it.

See Q. 22:56.

Q. 18:31 and 19:60.

Q. 78:2.

Muhammad often flatters his followers; see Q. 3:15, which says, “in the name of God,” as he fashions it, ; ¿¿c. ijiii jjill j» Ji

¿LaJL J-“ J j ’•¿.ji j-e “Speak;

shall I tell you what is better than this? Those who kept faith with their

Lord dutifully, the gardens await; rivers flow by its seat. They will remain there. Likewise, pure wives will be there, and the blessing of God, for God gives rewards to His servants.” See also Q. 4:54, 28:37, and 83:22.

Q. 56:15-16, where it says, “a few of the first men will lie upon the couch bedecked with gold and jewels”; and verse 18 continues, “with goblets, and cups with handles, and a chalice flowing perpetually with wine”; see also verse 17, “eternal youths will attend, them.” ,

Q. 13:35, in the middle, declares, “His food is everlasting, as

is His shade.” See also Q. 19:61, Q. 80:24, and 78:32.

See Q. 18:31, and Q. 22:23.

Q. 26:82 says, “I wish for God to forgive my sins

on the Day of Judgment,” according to Muhammad himself, because it concerns himself and his persona. On the other hand, Q. 46:20 says, ¡>»>4 j

jjiljj ¡»j j jaJi jSh Js¿¿л-a“On that day, those who rejected faith will be stood in fire. You have squandered your good deeds, the temporal affairs of life, and you have amused yourselves there. Today, though, shameful grief will be repaid to you. Thus, what you did in arrogance on the world, in injustice, and what you did duplicitously will be repaid to you!” See also Q. 20:56, 74 and 13:36.

See also Q. 2:24, 39, 81, 85 as well as Q. 3:10, 12, and 106.

Q. 2:162 says, “they will remain there constantly; their punishment will not be made any easier.” See also Q. 3:87, 88, 90 as well as Q. 98:6.

See note f in Section 16 [footnote 113].

Q. 4:56 says on this: ljU —•>— LiSblj Ij jj

ijjla. “Indeed, We shall cast into the fire those who have disbelieved. As often as their skin becomes thoroughly burned, We will regenerate it with another so they may suffer eternally.”

Q. 10:4.

Q. 13:18.

Q. 14:16.

Q. 18:53.

A memorable passage on this topic is found in Q. 7:19 (Hinck. 18). To avoid excessive wordiness, I will write out the translation here: He says, in the name of God, “Adam! Dwell, you and your wife, in Paradise; eat from whatever you wish; but do not approach this tree. And Satan whispered to them both, so that he made to appear before them what had been hidden from them concerning their genitals, and said, ‘Your Lord has not kept this tree from you, except that you might not be two angels, or not be among those who live forever.’ Then he swore to them, ‘I am, of course, absolutely one of those who will offer you good counsel.’ And he cast them down with deception. And after they had tasted the tree, their genitals were apparent to them and they began to sew garments for themselves from the leaves of Paradise. And their Lord cried out to them, ‘Did I not keep this tree from you, and did I not say to you, ‘Certainly Satan is a clear enemy to you?’.” See also Q. 2:36 (Hinck. 34), 168 (Hinck. 164).

Q. 3:135 (Hinck. 129), 2:1 ,■>$ ..4:i Iljl*i lil jAJlj

u Vi CjjjjJi “[They are] those who, after

they have committed foul deeds and acted unjustly towards themselves, remember God and seek pardon for their sins—who forgives wrongdoing if not God?—and they did not knowingly commit constant sin.” See also Q. 3:16 (Hinck. 14), likewise 31 (Hinck. 29).

See Q. 2:58.

Q. 4:136 is particularly relevant here, j ¿iu lyu >i!l L>

¿jj j-i/j ' f ijJ AULj ¿¡-a Jjjl jj ^Ic- Jjj

¿□xu □ J-a “Then I say, O believers! Have faith in God and His Messenger, and the scripture which had been sent before. Whoever denies God, His angels, His scriptures, His messengers, and the final day has gone far astray.” He adds in the following verse, A b->*£ A b"’ r b"' c«^1 ¿>! Ah- 'b (H-1 >*4 4i ¿A LA b2lJj' “Indeed, those who believed then disbelieved; again, they believed, and then disbelieved again, then they increased their disbelief. God will never forgive them, nor will He guide them to the right path.” More passages are relevant here. Whoever wishes may see Q. 3:89-90 (Hinck. 83, 84).

See Q. 3:103 (Hinck. 97), where he writes,, b^A 'b

jjA5 A*! Sb' A *“i b-“ <>Aiju ^uli > “Therefore, hold firmly to

God’s covenant, and in no way separate yourselves from it. Rather, remember the divine favor shown to you: when you were enemies, yet He united your hearts so that you became brothers by His grace. You were at the edge of a fiery pit, but He freed you from it. In this way, God makes His signs clear to you that you may be led on the right path.”

See Q. 2:211 (Hinck. 206).

Hence, Q. 2:18 (Hinck. 16) says, “He calls those who do not believe deaf, dumb, and blind.” See also 2:20.

Q. 2:37 (Hinck. 35), s* <»} '-A --2 —'—is Sj >.¿J “Adam re

ceived the words of his Lord and He accepted his repentance; indeed, God is the merciful [of repentance].” See 2:64 (Hinck., at the end of verse 61). In Q. 2:28 (Hinck. 26), Muhammad’s, statement is so fine that I could not fail to, write it out. He says, A A Ab^b Ulj-i ¿iss } aiu jjjKs-iuS

S “Why do you want to deny God, when you are mortal? Certainly, He can restore you to life. First, He will hand you over to death, then He will restore you to life, and then you will be brought down before Him.”

Q. 4:49 (Hinck. 52), A4» jj-iA j

“Have you seen those who want to justify themselves? Surely God justifies the one whom He wishes and not an ounce of injustice will be done to the one whom God justifies.”

See Q. 3:92 (Hinck. 85) and see below on good works.

See 3:193 (Hinck. 190), for it says, > b"’ J JAA □p-A b-1-“ L“--Aj jijjS'i UjUj— u» Ujjjj til >¿13 LLj "O! Our Lord! Indeed, we

heard a herald, who welcomed us to faith, saying ‘Believe in your Lord!’ Therefore, O! our Lord, we believed! So blot out our sins for us and cleanse us of our evils, and make us die with the righteous.”

See Q. 2:25 (Hinck. 23); likewise, Q. 2:62 (Hinck. 59); Q. 29:9 (Hinck. 6) says, >Ai—oil —uA-aii ijl-x-j >ilij “For We shall lead those

who believed and acted rightly [into Paradise] together with the good.” See also Q. 35:7.

Q. 3:179 (Hinck., at the end of verse 174); Q. 3:68 (Hinck., 63); 3:100 (Hinck. 94); and 102 (Hinck. 95).

Q. 2:8 (Hinck. 7), Q. 29:2 (Hinck. 1); for he writes, J 'Aw J'

jpisj Vj>AjiL«i IjJjL “Surely men will be unable to think that they will be left alone if they say, ‘we believe’? and that they will not be put to the test?” Q. 4:46 (Hinck. 49) says, u_A>> V AA yj “Not but a few believe.” See also Q. 2:155.

No passage presented itself to us, except this single one, which is found in Q. 2:138 (Hinck. 132), where it says, ApA»

He explains this in Q. 2:158 (Hinck. 153), j- »jj-^b ¿1

«oil jii IjjA £jJaj j-aj ji ji duuJi “Indeed, the

Safa and Marwa are among the signs of God.” These are two mountains located at Mecca. “Therefore, whoever sets out for the sake of pilgrimage to the temple of Mecca or goes there for an extended visit [‘umrah], of course it will be no blame for him if he performs [pilgrimage] on either of those mountains. Whoever shows obedience, then God, indeed, will be gracious and all-knowing.” See also Q. 4:114 (Hinck. 114) and 4:124.

Q. 9:103 (Hinck. 104), biX-a j) J^ U- feAAs j-

“Take alms out of their property, that you might purify and cleanse them thereby. Pray for them; of course, your prayers will be a reprieve for them. For God Himself hears and knows.”

See also: Q. 2:254, 267; Q. 3:134 (Hinck. 128); and Q. 4:36 (Hinck. 40).

Q. 2:264 (Hinck. 266), bu Jjib ¿*Jb ijJijj 7 ijjJ jjjJi Jb

?j4b “O believers! Do not ruin your alms by giving

in a spirit of resentment and injury, like the one who gives his wealth to men for appearances, yet does not believe in God, nor in the last day.” See also Q. 4:38 (Hinck. 42).

See Q. 4:2.

See the cited passage and verse 2. See also verses 8 and 10.

See Q. 2:219 (Hinck. 215), ^'-41 ¿iu- j b^s Ji j-^b

j “They will ask you about wine and games; say, ‘In both there is great injustice and usefulness for men; but the injustice is greater than the usefulness’.” See also Q. 5:90 (Hinck. 92).

Q. 4:37 (Hinck. 41), u JsJb <>bJi ¿jjJj j-i!'

b'j® bjicij "For those infidels who are greedy, and enjoin their greed on other men, and hide that which God gave to them in His generosity, we have indeed prepared a disgraceful punishment.”

Q. 4:43 (Hinck. 46), b-Jju j ><*>11 Ijj jjj V ljj-ai jjill

ji Jaj'Jul J-a ji—1 jl Jj j IjL-VI Vj

J ^^Aj^JJ lj^—IjjJa a Ij-o-aulS ¿L* Ij^^J ^3 those who

believe, do not go to prayers while you are drunk, until you know what you are saying; neither should those who are ritually impure [junub], unless you are on a journey, until you have washed. If you are sick and are on a journey, or if you return from the bathroom, or if you have congress with women and do not wash with water; then you should take finer earth (that is, better earth, [tayammum]) and scrub your face and your hands with it.” See Q. 2:43 (Hinck. 139).

In the passage cited, 2:150 (Hinck. 145).

Q. 5:6 (Hinck. 8), Before prayers, He gives the order to wash one’s hands up to the elbow. He also orders one to scrub one’s head and feet.

He declares them to be fortunate, see Q. 23:1-2. s

Muhammad strongly favors monasticism. Qur’an 57:27 says, bJi 3 IaI i yK La A-JLiAj j 4-a.^j j 4_aij ojx_Jl Jj^II ^3 j oLLul j j-* JjI

bil ¿b-J; «■'■»bi V) "We made Jesus the son of Mary follow, and We gave him the Gospel, and We placed in the hearts of those who followed mercy, and pity, and the monastic life. They have recently established it although we did not command it to them, and only by a desire to please God.” Also forbidden are that which has been sacrificed for other than God, and which has been killed by chance, or has slipped and fallen and, thus, died; also, that which died by being gored, and other circumstances that he exempts. Q. 5:3, see also Q. 16:115 (Hinck. verse 116).

See the passages cited in the previous note.

Q. 5:17 says, «11 ja <41 jl bJl* “Whoever says that God

is the Messiah, the son of Mary, is an infidel.” See also 5:73 (Hinck. 76), where the Messiah himself is introduced speaking in the following manner: Aj^Ji oil J-*4 ^li jj oil Ij2j£

Worship God, my Lord and your Lord. Indeed, whoever assigns a partner to God, He has already shut this man out of Paradise.”

Q. 4:171 says, ijljii Vj V Jai l>

IjjA. Ij^Jul AjZXu IjJjjj V_$ z oil -)"* ¿>¿1

‘‘i’-J J '“‘‘5 LjIj-o—JI ^3 La <1 JJ <1 J ¿j| ; J^lj Ajl oil Loot “O

people of the Scripture!,” that is what he calls Christians, properly, those who stick to the letter of the Holy Scripture, “do not commit excess in your religion, and do not talk about God unless it is the truth. Indeed, the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, is the Messenger of God and His word, which He sent to Mary. And the Spirit is from Him. Therefore, believe in God and His Messenger, but do not say [God is] three. Refrain (from such speech), it will be better for you. Indeed, God is one God, praise be unto Him. Surely, Jesus is not His son? Whatever is in the heavens and the earth is His, and God is sufficient for governing of all affairs.”

That is, entirely “in the likeness of Adam,” in Q. 3:59 (Hinck. 52).

See, apart from the passages which have already been cited above, Q. 2:87 (Hinck. 81), 2:253, and Q. 3:45 (Hinck. 40).

Q. 19:19, the Angel Gabriel speaks to the Virgin Mary; “Indeed, I am the Messenger of the Lord, that I may give you a holy son.” Mary answers him in Q. 19:20, “Where will my boy come from, since no man has not touched me, and I am not unchaste.” According to verse 23, “Sorrow overwhelmed her by the trunk of a palm.”

“No different than everything else in the world.” See Q. 5:18.

Q. 4:157 says, “-A 5 OJjIwO La J La J 4&I Jj-wij ^Jj-a jjj| s?—J >.1 oil LJlS LI ^¿Jj3 J Lijjj ojjji Laj jUi c-UjI Vi A6, ^j-a u| j 1 Indeed, it

is their speech,” that is, the Jews’ speech, “of course, we killed the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, the Messenger of God. But they did not kill him, nor did they nail him to the cross. Rather, his likeness was put before them. Although there are those who disagree on that, let one ignore the doubt that arises in him. They do not possess knowledge about him, but a quest for conjecture; for they [Jews] surelv did not kill him.”

Q. 5:110 (Hinck. 109).

In the cited passage.

Q. 3:52; 4:157 and 170; 5:83; 19:30.

Q. 6:85.

Q. 3:55.

Q. 19:30.

I have already spoken about these things above.

Q. 7:179 (Hinck. 178), h-1 3 L* V c^Vb >• (h55 '■*]>

J jlsliJl Jj V J !■*-■ V Lr0-' “Wc

have created many men from genies and men for Hell. They have hearts they do not understand with, they have eyes they do not see with, and they have ears they do not hear with. These men are like animals. Or, rather, they are indeed worse than them. They act heedlessly.”

Q. 4:88 (Hinck. 90), ia- jli JS)I JLaj j- j

Q. 3:74 (Hinck. 67), “God singles out His grace for

whomever He wishes.”

Q. 3:129 (Hinck. 124), j A-L" ¿-J ji*j Ji l.j

“Certainly, that is God’s, whatever is in the heavens and on the earth. He will pardon whom He wishes and punish whom He wishes.”

Q. 2:26 (Hinck. at the end of verse 24), '4-1' V) J-A: ^3 “God does not

lead men into error, unless they are disgracefully corrupted.”

Q. 4:113 (Hinck. 113) says, j'Ai 0s3 u ¿Ulej ¿Lie. ¿a jJyij

UxLe- ¿Lie «i>i “God sent you the Qur’an, and knowledge of divine law, and He taught you those things that you did not know; for the kindness of God towards you is great.” See also Q. 6:89 and 45:16.

Q. 17:77 (Hinck. 79) says, ^9Lili-1 V “You will hardly find a change in our law.”

Q. 5:1, bb' jjjli “O those who believe, fulfill your promises.” See also Q. 17:34 (Hinck. 36).

Q. 5:89 (Hinck. 91), uLj/ljCijie jiULxil “God

will not punish you for the thoughtless statement in your oath; but He will punish you for the oath you have sworn.” See also Q. 16:91, 94 (Hinck. 93). There is also an elegant saying which should not be ignored in Q. 48:10, where it says, L-jLs Jul Juuil jjxjLjlxjj ¿Ljxjlxi jj ill ¿1

-oil jaU- Lu s A-i “Indeed, those who struck a bargain with you struck the bargain with God too. The hand of God is over their hand. And whoever violates his oath, of course he will violate himself. But, God will certainly grant him a great reward for the one who keeps his promise.”

Q. 5:89 (Hinck. 91), “There will be a satisfaction,” that is, of the oath, “to feed ten paupers on modest food, which you feed your families with; or to clothe them; or to free slaves. But whoever cannot find the means,” that is, whoever cannot do these things, “it will suffice for him to fast for three days.”

Q, 11:123, j oXlc-Ls 5 diljLa—Jl

“Certainly, the secret of the heavens and the earth is God’s; everything will return to Him. Therefore, worship Him, and set Him as the trustee of your affairs; for your Lord will not be unaware of what you do.” See also Q. 17:22-23 (Hinck. 23) and Q. 26:213 (Hinck. 213).

The words in Q. 18:15 are worthy of being cited here:

“Who is more unjust than him who invents a lie about God.”

Q. 16:124 (Hinck. 125) says, ctu-Ji L-lj “Indeed, the Sabbath was established.”

Q. 17:23 (Hinck. 24), til ¿yjJljJL. 3 »ui 71 b^ Vi •Aij 3

Ujj£ "iji u$l Ji 3 y3 uj( u$l Jjj Hi ua>£ ji UAi^i jjiii "Your Lord has or

dained that you should worship none but Him and be kind to your parents. If one of them reach a great old age, do not say to them ugh! nor should you rebuke them; speak to them rather with kind words.” See also Q. 29:8 (Hinck. 7).

Q. 6:151, he says, “Therefore, do not kill your offspring

out of poverty.” He continues, “We have provided nourishment for you and them so that you do not kill your soul.” See also Q. 17:31, 33.

Q. 17:32, iLu- «■'—j jts <¡1 isjJi IjjjJj Vs “Do not indulge in whoring; of course, that road is very foul, and is very wicked.” See also Q. 24:31.

Q. 24:2-3 commands, “For the fornicator, male and female, beat them each a hundred lashes, and do not let pity for them take hold of you in the judgment of God, and let there be some number of the faithful as witnesses for their punishment. The fornicator is not to be married, unless to another fornicator. This sort of thing is forbidden to the faithful.”

Muhammad orders the hands to be cut off thieves, male and female (Q. 5:38) and he prevents usury by force of this command: Q. 83:1.

Hence, he lays out a precept at Q. 24:4, “For those who accuse modest women and do not offer four witnesses, beat them eighty lashes, and do not allow them to be witnesses ever after.” See also 24:19 and Q. 2:84.

Q. 3:3, ¿J-4 ¿Jjji j . AJjjj

jtijlli Jjji j “God sent you the Scripture to confirm that which was before it, after He had already sent the Torah and the Gospel to men; He also sent the Qur’an.” See also 3:65 (Hinck. 58) and Q. 9:113 (Hinck. 112).

See Q. 3:3, already cited.

Q. 2:187 (Hinck. 183).

Q. 4:3, «.i—Ji j-u “Take for a wife those women

who seem good to you: two, three, four.”

Q. 2:221 (Hinck. 219) says, j- “Surely, a

faithful slave girl is better than an unfaithful one, however pleasing [and attractive] she may be to you. And do not give faithful women to infidels for marriage, until these infidels believe.”

Q. 4:23, where it also prevents “daughters, aunts on both sides.”

Q. 2:222.

Q. 2:228 (Hinck. 228) and Q. 4:34 (Hinck. 38).

Q. 2:229-30 and Q. 4:20, 129.

Q. 2:240.

Q. 2:234 (Hinck. 234).

Q. 4:34 (Hinck. 38).

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