Selected Post-Reformation Works on Islamic Thought

This selected Latin bibliography should not be taken as a comprehensive list; however, it does show how much research could still be done on post-Reformation perceptions of Islamic thought and Muslim culture (1650-1840), which corresponds from the end of the Thirty Years’ War to the establishment of Oriental Institutes in Europe. Some of the Lutheran and Calvinist works on Islam between these periods have been studied primarily by Alastair Hamilton, Martin Mulsow, Asaph Ben-Tov, Gregory Miller, Jan Loop, and Pier Mattia Tommasino. However, there are literally hundreds of unstudied dissertationes, disputationes, orationes, and exercitationes in Lutheran and Calvinist universities.

In determining the authors of these Latin texts, I have followed this rule: when an auctor has not been explicitly identified on the title page of a work the authorship has been attributed to the praeses. Also, a word of caution about the religious affiliations of the authors: although the majority of the scholars are Lutherans, or Evangelical as they called themselves, the Calixtinian Syncretic controversy in the seventeenth century, the rise of Pietism, and the radical Enlightenment ideas in the eighteenth century contributed to loosen the bonds of conservative orthodox Lutheranism. Therefore, some scholars adopted a more eclectic or latitudinarian perspective on Biblical and theological studies. This list is prepared chronologically with the publication year, followed by the name of the author, the title of his work, place of publication, the dates and locations of his birth and death, and his affiliation.

1653 Hoornbeek, Johannes. Summa controversiarum religionis, cum infidelibus, haereticis, schismaticis: id est, Gentilibus, Judaeis, Muham-medanis; Papistis, Anabaptistis, Enthusiastis et Libertinis, Socinianis; Remonstrantibus, Lutheranis, Broumistis, Graecis (Summary of Religious Controversies with Infidels, Heretics, Schismatics: Pagans, Jews, Muhammadans; Catholics, Anabaptists, Enthusiasts and Libertines, Socinians; Remonstrants, Lutherans, Brownists), published in Utrecht. Born in 1617 in Haarlem, died in 1666 in Leiden; Calvinist Theologian of Dutch Reformed Church and Professor of Theology at Utrecht and Leiden.

  • 1660 Dannhauer, Johann C. Muhammedismus, breviter delineates (Muhammadanism, Briefly Outlined), published in Strasbourg. Born in 1603 in Köndringen (Breisgau), died in Strasbourg in 1666; Lutheran theologian.
  • 1661 Rentsch, Johann Wolfgang. Disputatio de Turcis (Disputation on the Turks), published in Wittenberg. Born in 1637 in Bayreuth, died in 1690 in Bayreuth; Lutheran.
  • 1661 Strauchius, Aegidius. Dissertatio chronologica de computo Turcico-Arabico, excidii Constantinopolitani anno (Chronological Dissertation on Turkish-Arabic Calendar, and the Year of the Destruction of Constantinople), published in Wittenberg. Born in 1632 in Wittenberg, died in 1682 in Danzig; Lutheran theologian.
  • 1661 Dürr, Johann Konrad. Disputatio theologica qua evincitur quod coram judicio divino sint Muhammedani inexcusabiles (Theological Disputation Proving the Inexcusability of Muslims in the Face of Divine Judgement), published in Altdorf. Born in 1625 in Nuremberg, died in 1677 in Altdorf; Lutheran theologian.
  • 1663 Kortholt (der Ältere), Christian. De religione Muhammedana disquisitio (An Investigation on the Muhammadan Religion), published in Rostock. Born in 1633 in Burg auf Fehmarn, died in 1694 in Kiel; Lutheran Pietist theologian.
  • 1664 Rosa, Christianus. Discursus politico-theologicus de turcismi fuga, et graecae (sub Turca exsulantis) linguae apud Christianos, incre-mento (Political-Theological Discourse on the Avoidance of Turkism, and the Rise of the Greek Language - Banned under the Turks - Among Christians), published in Berlin. Born in 1609 in Mittenwalde, died in 1667 Neuruppin; Lutheran.
  • 1664 Bebel, Balthasar. Dissertatio historico theologica de Saraceno-rum initiatione ex fragmenta libri xx. Thesauri Nicetae (Historical-Theological Dissertation on [Religious] Initiation of the Arabs [the Beginning of Islam] from a Fragment of Book 20 of the Thesaurus of Niketas Chômâtes), published in Strasbourg. Born in 1632 in Strasbourg, died in 1686 in Wittenberg; Lutheran theologian.
  • 1664 Dannhauer, Johann C. Dissertatio theologica de fato flagelli Turcici fatique luce divinae irae, Ottomanica tela in Christianos suos hactenus vibrantis, caussas limitesque perpendens (Theological Dissertation on the Fate of the Turkish Scourge and the Light of Fate (Divine Wrath), Ottoman Missiles Brandished against their Christians Hitherto, Assessing Origins and Limits), published in Strasbourg.
  • 1664 Raith, Balthasar. ArbaTna IiadTtan hoc est Pandecta dictorum factorumque Muhammed (ArbaTna hadfthan: Collection of the Words and Deeds of Muhammad), published in Tübingen. Born in 1616 in Schorndorf, died in 1683 in Tübingen; Lutheran theologian and Professor at Tübingen.
  • 1665 Müller, Andreas. Excerpta manuscripti cujusdam turcici, quod de cognitione Dei et hominis ipsius a quodam Azizo Nesephaeo, Tataro, scriptum est (Excerpts from a Turkish Manuscript, which was Written by Tatar ‘Aziz NasafT, Concerning the Understanding of God and Man), published in Berlin. Born in 1630 in Greifenhagen, died in 1694 in Stettin; Lutheran theologian and sinologist.
  • 1665 Pfeiffer, August. Dissertatio philologica quarta de Muhammedis impostoris Alkorano (Fourth Philological Dissertation on the Qur’an of the Impostor Muhammad), published in Wittenberg. Born in 1640 in Lauenburg/Elbe, died in 1698 in Lübeck; Lutheran theologian.
  • 1666 Kortholt (der Altéré), Christian. De religione ethnica, muham-medana et iudaica, dissertatio tripartite (Three-Part Dissertation on Heathen Religion: Islam and Judaism), published in Kiel.
  • 1666 Henningsen, Henning. Muhammedanus precans, id est Liber precationum Muhammedicarum arabicus manuscriptus (The Praying Muslim: An Arabic Manuscript Book of Islamic Prayers), published in Schleswig.
  • 1668 Dannhauer, Johann Conrad. Ecclesia Muhammedana (The Muhammadan Church), published in Strasbourg.
  • 1670 Kromayer, Hieronymus. Scrutinium religionum turn falsarum, Paganismi, Muhammetismi, ludaismi, Catabaptismi & Quakerismi, Weigelianismi & Rosae-Crucianismi, Secinianismi, Arminianismi, Cal-vinismi, Abyssinismi, Anatolicismi, Papismi, Turn unice verae & or-thodoxae, Lutheranismi (An Examination, first, of the False Religions: Paganism, Muhammadanism, Judaism, Catabaptism and Quakerism, Weigelianism and Rosier ucianism, Socinianism, Arminianism, Calvinism, Abbyssinism, Anatolicism, Catholicism and then of the One True and Orthodox Religion, Lutheranism), published in Leipzig. Born in 1610 in Zeitz, died in 1670 in Leipzig; Lutheran theologian and Professor at the University of Leipzig.
  • 1673 Dürr, Johann Konrad. Publici Triga Disputationum Theologi-carum quibus occasione oraculi Paulini Rom. I, 20. evincitur, quod coram iudicio divino sint ethnici, ludaei, Muhammedani inexcusabiles (Three Public Theological Disputations, in which by the Explanation of Romans 20 of the Oracle Paul it is Proven, That Before Divine Judgement the Heathens, Jews, and Muslims are Inexcusable), published in Jena.
  • 1683 Capel (Capellus), Rudolf. Dissertatio publica de Alcorano sive Alfurcano, Muhamedis et Muhamedanorum (Public Dissertation on the Qur’an or al-Furqan, of Muhammad and the Muslims), published in Hamburg. Born in 1635 in Hamburg and died in 1684 in Hamburg; Protestant philologist and Professor at Hamburg.
  • 1683 Wasmuth, Matthias. Disputatio inauguralis Hodomoriam Muhammedanam breviter exhibens (Inaugural Disputation Briefly

Presenting Islamic Heresy), published in Kiel. Born in 1625 in Kiel, died in 1688 in Kiel; Lutheran theologian and Professor.

  • 1684 Zentgraf, Johann Joachim. De parricidio gentis Ottomanicae, quo Imperium Turcicum niti dicitur (Concerning the Parricide of the Ottoman Clan, on which the Turkish Empire is Said to Depend), published in Strasbourg. Born in 1643 in Strasbourg, died in 1707 in Strasbourg; Lutheran theologian.
  • 1684 Mobius, Georg. Disquisitio theologica de causis & mediis, quae Mahomedisticam religionem partim introduxerunt, partim adhuc con-servant (Theological Discussion on Origins and Means, Some of which have Given Rise to the Muhammadan Religion, Some of which Still Preserve it), published in Leipzig. Born in 1616 in Laucha an der Unstrut, died in 1697 in Leipzig; Lutheran theologian, Professor and biblical exegete.
  • 1685 Frischmuth, Johann. Exercitium academicum, ad loca quaedam Scripturae illustranda, quibus Turcarum Persarumque doctores Mu-hammedem veri nominis, et a Deo promissum fuisse prophetam probare satagunt (Academic Exercise, to Elucidate Certain Passages of Scripture, by which the Learned Men of the Turks and Persians Trouble Themselves to Prove that Muhammad Was a True Prophet, and That He Was Sent Forth by God), published in Jena. Born in 1619 in Wertheim am Main, died in 1687 in Wertheim am Main; Lutheran theologian and Professor.
  • 1685 Falck, Nathanael. Arcana status in religione Muhammedana, disputatione historico-theologica (Arcane Beliefs in the Muslim Religion: An Historical-Theological Disputation), published in Rostock. Born in 1663 in Danzig, died in 1693 in Stettin; Lutheran theologian.
  • 1685 Carolus, Andreas David. De religione Lutherana (The Lutheran Religion), published in Wittenberg. Born in 1658 in Calw, died in 1707 in Kirchheim unter Teck; Lutheran theologian.
  • 1687 Calixt, Friedrich Ulrich. Ad dissertationem de idolátrica religione auctarium primum de Judaeorum et Muhammedanorum idolatria (First Supplement to the Dissertation on Idolatrous Religion Concerning the Idolatry of the Jews and Muslims), published in Helmstedt. Born in 1622 in Helmstedt, died in 1701 in Helmstedt; Lutheran theologian.
  • 1688 Schwimmer, Johann Michael. Exercitatio política de republica Turcica (Academic Exercise on the Politics of the Turkish Republic), published in Rudolstadt. Born in 1638 in Rudolstadt, died in 1704 in Rudolstadt; Lutheran philosopher and Professor.
  • 1688 Beck, Matthias Friedrich. Specimen Arabicum, hoc est, Bina Capitula Alcorani XXX. de Roma et XLIIX. de Victoria, e IV. Cod-icibus MSS Arabice descripta, Latine versa, et Notis Animadver-sionibusque locupletata. His nostris Temporibus, Quibus Imperium Romano-Germanicum Victorias contra Muhammedanos prosequitur, accomodatum Argumentum (Arabic Specimen on Two Chapters of the

Qur’an: 30, Concerning Rome [al-Rtim], and 48, Concerning Victory [al-Fath], from Four Manuscript Books, Written Out in Arabic, Translated to Latin, and Enriched with Notes and Observations: the Topic [is] Suitable for These Our Times, in which the Roman-German Empire Pursues Victories Against the Muslims), published in Augsburg. Born in 1649 in Kaufbeuren, died in 1701 in Augsburg; Lutheran theologian.

  • 1694 Celsius, Olaus. Historia lingua et eruditionis Arabum (History of Arabic Language and Learning), published in Uppsala. Born in 1670 in Uppsala, died in 1756 in Uppsala; Lutheran theologian and philologist.
  • 1696 Reland, Adriaan. Exercitatio philologico-theologica de symbolo Mohammedico (non est Deus nisi unus) adversas quod S. S. Trinitas defenditur (Philological-Theological Exercise on the Muslim Shahäda-There is no god but the One God-Against Which the Holy Trinity is Defended), published in Utrecht. Born in 1676 in de Rijp, died in 1718 in Utrecht; Calvinist theologian, philologist and Professor.
  • 1697 Lange, Johann Michael. De fabulis Mohhamaedicis circa SS. Trinitatis mysterium et generationem in divinis (On the Muslim Fables Around the Holy Spirit, the Mystery of the Holy Trinity, and Divine Creation), published in Nuremberg. Born in 1664 in Etzelwang, died in 1731 in Prenzlau; Lutheran theologian.
  • 1700 Stürmer, Reinhold. Dissertatio historico-politica de fratricidio a quo Turcarum monarchae non raro imperii initium facere consveverunt (Historical-Political Dissertation Concerning the Fratricide with which the Monarchs of the Turks Have Not Infrequently Become Accustomed to Make a Beginning of Their Rule), published in Königsberg. Born in 1677 in Königsberg, died in 1708 in Königsberg; Lutheran Lecturer in Philosophy.
  • 1701 Mantzel, Joachim. Spicilegium historico-philologicum, histo-riam litarariam Alcorani sistens (Historical-Philological Gleaning Consisting of the Literary History of the Qur’an), published in Rostock. Born in 1678 in Rostock, died in 1712 in Parchim; Lutheran theologian.
  • 1701 Acoluthus, Andreas. Tetrapla Alcoránica, Sive Specimen Alcorani quadrilinguis, arabici, persici, turcici, latini (Quadruple Qur’an or Selections from the Qur’an in Four Languages: Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Latin), published in Berlin. Born in Bernstadt in 1654 in Lower Silesia and died in 1704 in Breslau (Wroclaw); Lutheran theologian and Professor of Theology.
  • 1704 Lange, Johann Michael. Dissertatio historico-philologico-theologica de speciminibus, conatibus variis atque novissimis suc-cessibus doctorum quorundam virorum in edendo Alcorano arabico (Historical-Philological-Theological Dissertation on the Varied Examples and Efforts and Extraordinary Successes of Certain Learned Men in Publishing the Arabic Qur’an), published in Altdorf. Born in 1664 in Etzelwang, died in 1731 in Prenzlau; Lutheran theologian.
  • 1705 Upmarck, Johann. Dissertatio historico-politica de statu Per-sarum hodierno in Oriente (Historical-Political Dissertation on the Present State of the Persians in the East), published in Uppsala. Born in 1664 in Uppsala, died in 1743 in Stockholm; Lutheran philologist and classicist.
  • 1706 Jacobi, Christian Ferdinand and Johann Heinrich Martius. De lotionibus Mohammedanorum exercitatio prima (First Exercise on the Ablution of the Muslims), published in Leipzig. It seems that both worked on the paper and presented it jointly; neither is identified as a praeses or respondent-, Jacobi was born in Wroclaw, lived in the seventeenth century; Lutheran philologist. Martius was born in 1677 in Mittweida, died in 1756 in Wittenberg; Lutheran and Professor at Wittenberg.
  • 1706 Schultens, Albert. Disputatio theologico philologica de utilitate linguae arabicae in interpretanda scriptura (Theological-Philological Disputation on the Utility of the Arabic Language in Interpreting Scripture), published in Groningen. Born in 1686 in Groningen, died in 1750 in Leiden; Dutch Calvinist theologian and philologist, and Professor at Leiden.
  • 1707 Von Sanden, Bernhard. Disputatio theologica de Mohammede Pseudo-Propheta prima (First Theological Disputation on the False Prophet Muhammad), published in Königsberg. Born in 1666 in Königsberg, died in 1721 in Königsberg; Lutheran theologian and Professor at Königsberg.
  • 1708 Doederlein, Johann Michael. Dissertationem philologicam de fundamentis et partibus theologiae Muslimannorum (Philological Dissertation on the Fundamentals and Particulars of the Theology of the Muslims), published in Altdorf. Born in 1687, died in 1735 in Weissenburg am Mordgau; Lutheran theologian and pastor.
  • 1717 Silberrad, Elias. Dissertatio moralis de Turcis ex Europa pellen-dis (Moral Dissertation on Driving the Turks Out of Europe), published in Strasbourg. Born in Lampertheim in 1688 and died in Strasbourg in 1731; Lutheran Professor of Theology and Pastor in Temple Neuf in Strasbourg.
  • 1718 Schroeder, Matthias Georg. Muhammad shahid al-haqq ‘aid nafsihi. Muhammed testis veritatis contra se ipsum, Turcis verax, qui mendacia admittat, christianis mendax, qui veritatem dicat, utrin-que ex locis Alcorani utrisque demonstratus (Muhammad [is] a Witness of the Truth Against Himself, Truthful to the Turks, Though He Admits Lies, [and] a Liar to the Christians, Though He Speaks the Truth; Both Demonstrated from Passages of the Qur’an to Both [Groups]), published in Leipzig. Born in 1695 and died in 1719; Lutheran theologian.
  • 1719 Lakemacher, Johann Gottfried. Ex historia philosophica oriental!, de Alkendi, Arabum philosopho celebérrimo (From Eastern Philosophical History, Concerning al-Kindi, a Most Renowned Philosopher

Post-Reformation Works on Islamic Thought 329 of the Arabs), published in Helmstedt. Born in 1695 in Osterwieck, died in 1736 in Helmstedt; Lutheran philologist and Hellenist.

  • 1720 Pater, Paulus (Pater Pal). Insignia Turcica: ex variis superstitio-num tenebris, orientalium maxime populorum, disquisitions academ-ica (Turkish Signs: from Varied Shadows of Superstition, Especially of the Eastern Peoples: An Academic Investigation), published in Jena. Born in 1656 in Menhärd, died in 1724 in Danzig; Hungarian Lutheran mathematician and astronomer. Apparently religious persecution led many Hungarian Lutherans to resettle in Prussia in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.
  • 1723 Kehr, Georgius Jacobus. Saraceni, Hagareni et Mauri, quinam sint? et, undenam dicti? (Saracens, Hagarenes and Moors, Just Who Are They? And, Just What Are They Named After?), published in Leipzig. Born in 1692 in Schleusingen, died in 1760 in Saint Petersburg; Pietist.
  • 1729 Callenberg, Johann Heinrich. Iuris circa Christianos Mu-hammedici particulae (Particulars of the Muslim Law on Christians), published in Halle an der Saale. Born in 1694 in Molschleben, died in 1760 in Halle; Studied philology and theology at Halle; Pietist Professor of Theology and missionary who focused on conversion of Jews and Muslims.
  • 1731 Michaelis, Johann Heinrich. Dissertationem philologicam de historia linguae Arabica (Philological Dissertation on the History of the Arabic Language), published in Hale. Born in 1668 in Klettenberg, died in 1738 in Halle; Pietist theologian, philologist and Hebraist.
  • 1732 Neubauer, Ernst Friedrich. Dissertatio philologico-hermeneutica de angelo mortis ex mente Ebraeorum ac Muhammedanorum (Philological-Hermeneutic Dissertation on the Angel of Death According to the Mind of the Jews and Muslims), published in Halle an der Saale. Born in 1705 in Magdeburg, died in 1748 in Giessen; Lutheran theologian and Pietist.
  • 1739 Michaelis, Christian Benedikt. Dissertatio philologica, ritualia quaedam Codicis Sacri ex Alcorano illustrans (Philological Dissertation Illustrating Certain Rituals of the Sacred Book from the Qur’an), published in Halle an der Saale. Born in 1680 in Ellrich, died in 1764 in Halle (Saale); Lutheran Professor of Theology, Pietist.
  • 1743 Mill, David. De Mohammedismo ante Mohammedem (Muhammadanism before Muhammad), published in Leiden. Born in 1692 in Königsberg, died in 1756 in Utrecht; Reformed theologian and Professor.
  • 1745 Kortholt (der Jüngere), Christian. Disputatio theologica inaugurate de enthusiasmo Mohammedis (Inaugural Theological Disputation on the Enthusiasm of Muhammad), published in Göttingen. Born in 1709 in Kiel, died in 1751 in Göttingen; Lutheran theologian and Professor of Divinity.
  • 1747 Aurivillius, Carl. Disputatio philologica de usu dialecti Arabi-cae in indaganda vocum Ebraicarum significations propria et originaria
  • (Philological Disputation on the Use of the Arabic Language in Examining the Proper and Original Meanings of Hebrew Words), published in Uppsala. Born in 1717 in Uppsala, died in 1786 in Stockholm; Swedish Lutheran theologian and philologist.
  • 1761 Avellan, Michael. Dissertatio historico-philologica de caussis puritatis ac floris perennis linguae Arabica (Historical-Philological Dissertation on the Causes of the Purity and Perpetual Bloom of the Arabic Language), published in Abo, Finland. Born in 1736 in Tammela, died in 1807 in Tammela; Finnish Lutheran theologian, philologist and Professor.
  • 1761 Cotta, Johann Friedrich. Exercitatio de religione Muhammedica (Exercise on the Muhammadan Religion), published in Tübingen. Born in 1701 Tubingen, died in 1779 in Tübingen; Lutheran theologian and Professor of Theology.
  • 1772 Hommel, Carl Ferdinand. Über Belohnung und Strafe nach Türkischen Gesezen (On Reward and Punishment According to Turkish Law), published in Bayreuth and Leipzig. Born in 1722 in Leipzig, died in 1781 in Leipzig; Lutheran jurist and legal theorist.
  • 1775 Storr, Gottlob Christian. Dissertatio inauguralis critica de Evangeliis Arabicis (Inaugural Critical Dissertation on the Arabic Gospels), published in Tübingen. Born in 1746 in Stuttgart, died in 1805 in Stuttgart; Lutheran theologian.
  • 1793 Norberg, Matthias. Dissertatio de ingenio Muhammedis (Dissertation on Ingenuity of Muhammad), published in Lund. Born in 1747 in Nätra in Sweden, died in 1826 in Uppsala; Swedish Lutheran historian of religion and linguist.
  • 1821 Tholuck, Friedrich August. Sufismus sive Theosophia Persarum Pantheistica (Sufism, or, the Pantheistic Theosophy of the Persians), published in Berlin. Born in 1799 in Breslau, died in 1877 in Halle (Saale); Pietist theologian.
  • 1823 Peiper, Carl Rudolf Samuel. De Moallaka Lebidi, celeberrimi veterum arabum poëtae carmine laudatissimo dissertationem (Dissertation on the Mu'allaqa, the Most Praised Poem of the Most Celebrated Poet of the Ancient Arabs, Labïd), published in Jordanimola ad Nim-itium. Born in 1798 in Striegau, died in 1879 in Hirschberg; Lutheran pastor and philologist.
  • 1829 Lindgren, Henrik Gerhard. De lingua neo-Arabica disquisitio (Investigation on the Neo-Arabic Language), published in Uppsala. Born in 1801 in Stockholm, died in 1879 in Tierp; Swedish Lutheran pastor and philologist.
  • 1834 Bergmann, Frédéric-Guillaume. De religione Arabum anteislam-ica dissertatio historico-theologica (Historical-Theological Dissertation on the Pre-Islamic Religion of the Arabs), published in Strasbourg. Born in 1812 in Strasbourg, died in 1887 in Strasbourg; Alsatian (Reformed Church) Calvinist theologian, philologist, and Professor.
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