Quantifying the Potential of Industrial Symbiosis: The LOCIMAP Project, with Applications in the Humber Region
Malcolm Bailey and Andrew Gadd
Abstract The Humber region, in North East England, is a major hub of industrial activity and trade. It has seen applications of industrial symbiosis for many years, initially centred on 'top-down' infrastructure projects with large capital investment but subsequently following a 'bottom-up' approach engaging industries in the area. Reductions in GHG emissions and waste generation have already been impressive. The possibilities for further savings, recognising the European Union's aspirations for deep GHG cuts and the objectives of the A.SPIRE partnership involving 114 stakeholders from the process industries in Europe, have been explored in the LOCIMAP (low-carbon industrial manufacturing parks) project, which involved partners from across Europe. Industrial symbiosis has been central in the plans for LOCIMAP from the outset. Studies conducted for LOCIMAP have revealed that more substantial savings require industrial symbiosis to be designed in, rather than developed once facilities exist. Major further savings depend on co-location of activities in eco-industrial parks to enable systematic process integration, but following this approach raises further questions, including:
– How can such systems be engineered without compromising safety?
– What are the implications for system resilience?
– How does close integration affect operations such as maintenance?
The project has shown that we have the engineering ability to achieve deep reductions in energy use and GHG emissions provided industries can be located in eco-industrial parks with interactions designed according to thermodynamic principles. Barriers to realising this concept, to achieve a new industrial revolution, include an economic and ﬁscal system which means that design for optimal economic performance leads to different outcomes from designing for optimal environmental performance.
Keywords Eco-industrial parks • Energy integration • Humberside • Industrial symbiosis • Resource innovation
Introduction: Brief History of Industrial Symbiosis in the Humber Region
The Humber is the largest river system in the UK and is responsible for draining 20 % of the UK's land mass. It captures drainage waters as far south as Birmingham through the Trent River system and north into Yorkshire through the Ouse. The river itself is the boundary between Yorkshire and Northern Lincolnshire. It is a major navigation channel and its banks are home to signiﬁcant industrial clusters. The natural geography and geology of the Humber bring signiﬁcant advantages for the location of industry. The deep water channel swings ﬁrst to the south bank and then to the north. The ports of Immingham, Grimsby and Hull are located at these touching points and in combination make up the largest tonnage port complex in the UK. Twenty-seven per cent of UK's reﬁning capacity is located here; 25 % of UK's rail freight originates here, much of which ﬁnds home in the steel and power industries; just north of the Humber estuary, 20 % of UK's gas is landed at Easington, fed by the Langeled pipeline, the world's longest underwater pipeline, via the Sleipner gas processing platform (Fig. 19.1).
In addition to ports and logistics, the chemical industry is a highly signiﬁcant cluster. With a turnover of £6 billion, it provides employment for 10,000 people within 120 companies that include global brands such as BP and Croda Chemicals. The food sector, based historically on the ﬁshing industry, has been dominant in the
Fig. 19.1 Arial overview of Immingham/South Killingholme (industrial areas in orange)
towns of Grimsby and Hull. Grimsby, known as Europe's Food Town, is home to a high concentration of food producers, supported by cold storage, logistics, engineering and packaging services. The town is synonymous with seafood, including brands such as Findus and Young's, and represents 70 % of the entire UK seafood processing capacity. Steel processing at Scunthorpe has its origins in the iron deposits of the Jurassic limestone escarpment that is found at either side of the estuary.
Seventeen per cent of UK's power-generating stations including Drax, Eggborough, Ferrybridge, Cottam, Radcliffe, Humber Power and Centrica lie inland from the Humber region. With only 8 % of UK's electricity demand, the Yorkshire and Humber region is a net exporter of power to the rest of the country. The heavy industrial base of the wider Yorkshire and Humber economy is the source of 23 % of the CO2 emissions of England and Wales (89 Mte) (Environment Agency) and over six million tonnes of commercial and industrial waste arisings (Defra 2011, 2014) (Fig. 19.2).
Fig. 19.2 Strategic location of the Humber within the North Sea basin
Immingham CHP is one of the largest combined heat and power (cogeneration) plants in Europe. The 1,220 MWe facility provides steam and electricity to Phillips 66's Humber Reﬁnery, steam to the neighbouring Lindsey reﬁnery and merchant power into the UK market. With more recent regional investment in wind power and the bioethanol plant at Saltend that add to the existing CCGT and CHP power plants, the Humber has been positioned as the 'Energy Estuary'.
This rich industrial activity of the Humber and the wider Yorkshire and Humber region have made it a natural home for applying industrial symbiosis principles (see Chertow 2007 and Chap. 5). The early work on industrial symbiosis on Humberside around the turn of the millennium was centred on the large capital projects of the region. These included the Immingham CHP plant, studies on a 'Humber bundle' considered to link the chemical and gas generation plants of the north and south bank through a strategic pipelines crossing beneath the river, together with a further major study of material streams within the Humber's chemical industry. This 'topdown' approach, considering major infrastructure initiatives, was later replaced with a 'bottom-up' widespread engagement of industrial partners taken by the NISP-Humber from 2003 onwards (Mirata 2004). This was one of the three pilot regions at the start of the UK National Industrial Symbiosis Programme (NISP); it became the NISP-Yorkshire and Humber region in 2005. Over the subsequent 5 years alone, this programme engaged with 700 companies in Yorkshire and Humber and documented CO2 reductions of 780,000 tonnes per annum for its clients and a reduction of 1,400,000 tonnes in material being landﬁlled.
Link2Energy Ltd ran these latter two industrial programmes on behalf of International Synergies Ltd. Initially the funding was from the regional development agency Yorkshire Forward and subsequently from the Department of Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA). From 2012 Link2Energy Ltd developed its own independent commercial programme Re:Sourcing UK with a focus on high-value opportunities and innovation. It is against this background and experience that Link2Energy Ltd was invited to provide industrial symbiosis expertise into the European FP7funded project LOCIMAP, below.
The strategic importance of the Humber region has also been recognised by a study carried out by the University of Surrey on the Evolution and Resilience of Industrial Ecosystems (ERIE) project. Two further papers draw extensively on the work in the Humber region, 'Habitat' Suitability Index Mapping for Industrial Symbiosis Planning (Jensen et al. 2012) and Quantifying 'Geographic Proximity': Experiences from the United Kingdom's National Industrial Symbiosis Programme (Jensen et al. 2011).