Thymoquinone-Loaded Nanocarriers for Healthcare Applications

RUQAIYAH KHAN,1 HIMANI NAUTIYAL,2 and SHAKIR SALEEM1

JChitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab, India, E-mails: This email address is being protected from spam bots, you need Javascript enabled to view it : This email address is being protected from spam bots, you need Javascript enabled to view it (5. Saleem)

2Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy, Dobachi, Dehradun,

Uttarakhand, India

ABSTRACT

Nano drug delivery system deals with the enhancement of bioavailability of orally administered therapeutic agents, target-specific drug delivery, and prolonged half-life of parenteral. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the chief active ingredient of Nigel la sativa and has been incorporated in innumerable nano- formulations to assess its diverse pharmacological activity against many human illnesses including cancer, hypertension (HTN), diabetes, allergies, eczema, and immunogenic disorders. The major problem in developing TQ based nano formulation is its highly hydrophobic nature which limits its solubility and its bioavailability. However, the emergence of surface engineering of the nanoparticle carrier systems has fixed this problem for TQ and hence, several nanofonnulations have been developed and evaluated. This chapter briefly discusses the health applications of TQ based nanofonnulations prepared tlirough different techniques.

13.1 INTRODUCTION

Over the last couple of decades, remarkable progress has been envisaged in the field of nanotechnology-related to therapeutics and radio-imaging agents thereby minimizing the interventions (Martins et al., 2013). Nanotherapeutics aims to provide maximum pharmacological efficacy and minimum side effects by lowering the frequency of administration. Several nano-fonnula- tions like dendrimers, nanocrystals, nanoemulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), nano micelles, and polymeric nanoparticles have been developed to achieve better therapeutic compliance (Onoue et al., 2014). In the year 1996, the first nano-drug, Doxil, was approved by the FDA, hence laying the foundation of nano-drug delivery system. It was then followed by cascade of approvals including but not limited to oxaliplatin nanoparticles, nanoparticle comprising rapamycin and albumin as an anticancer agent, calcipotriol monohydrate nanocrystals, liposomes comprising docetaxel, nanoemulsion of 5-aminolevulinic acid and treatment of systemic fungal infections with phospholipid particles encapsulating polyene antibiotics (Krukemeyer et al., 2015).

Recently, various approaches involving polymer-based nanoparticles for oral administration of the drug has been undertaken for the treatment of cancer and several other diseases (Cho et al., 2008; Ravindran et al., 2010). Polymer-based nanoparticles have also been employed to deliver natural products like coenzyme Q10 (Ankola et al., 2007), estradiol (Hariharan et al., 2006), ellagic acid (Bala et al., 2006), curcumin (Bisht et al., 2007), and chemotherapeutic agents as paclitaxel (Mu et al., 2003) and doxorubicin (DOX) (Vasey et al., 1999).

 
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